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The present work lays claim to no higher cha- 
racter than that of a compilation. This indeea 
must necessarily be the character of any work at- 
tempted, at this day, upon the same subject. Ml 
the accessible facts in the life and fortunes of the 
Arabian prophet have long since been given to the 
world. New theories and speculations, moral and 
philosophical, founded upon these facts, and many of 
them richly deserving attention, are frequently pro- 
pounded to the reflecting, but they add little or no- 
thing to the amount of our positive information. therefore that can now be expected is such a 
selection and arrangement and investment of the 
leading particulars of the Impostor's history, as 
shall convey to the English reader, in a correct 
and concentrated form, those details which 
otherwise diflfiised through a great number of rare 
books, and couched in several different languages. 
Such a work, discreetly prepared* would supply, 
if we mistake not, a very considerable desideratum 
in our language — one which is beginning to be 
more sensibly felt than ever, and which the spirit 
of the age loudly requires to have supplied. How 


far the present sketch may go towards meeting th^ 
demcuni, it becomes others than the writer to judge. 
He has aimed to make the most judicious use of 
the materials before him, and from the whole mass 
to elicit a candid moral estimate of the character 
of the Founder of Islam. In one respect he may 
venture to assure the reader he will find the plan 
of the ensuing pages an improvement upon pre- 
ceding Memoirs ; and that is, in the careful colla- 
tion of the chapters of the Koran with the events 
of the narrative. He will probably find the history 
illustrated to an unexpected extent from this 
source — a circumstance, which, while it serves 
greatly to authenticate the facts related, imparts a 
zest also to the tenor of the narrative scarcely to 
he expected from the nature of the theme. 

In order to preserve the continuity of the story 
from being broken by incessant reference to au- 
thorities, the following catalogue is submitted, 
which will present at one view the principal works 
consulted and employed in preparing the present 
Life : — Sale's Koran, 2 vols. ; Universal History, 
Mod. Series, vol. i. ; Gibbon's Decline and Fall 
of the Roman Empire, vol. iii. ; Prideaux's Life of 
Mahomet ; Boulainvillier's do. ; do. in Library of 
Useful Knowledge, No. 45 ; Bayle's Historical 
Dictionary, Art. Mahomet ; Hottinger's Historia 
Orientalis : Abul-Faragii Historia Dynastarum, 
Pocock's Transl. ; Morgan's Mahometism Ex- 
plained, 2 vols. ; Forster's Mahometanism Un- 
veiled, 2 vols. ; D'Herbelot's Bibliotheque Orien- 


tale ; Rycaut's Present State of the Ottoman Em- 
pire ; Ockley's History of the Saracens, 2 vols. ; 
White's Bampton Lectures ; Lee's Translation of 
the Rev. H. Martyn's Controversial Tracts ; 
Whitaker's Origin of Arianism; Faber's Sacred 
Calendar of Prophecy, 3 vols. ; Buckingham's, 
Keppel's, Burckhardt's, and Madden's Travels in 
the East. 

On the subject of the Arabic proper names so 
frequently occurring in this vrork, it may be uselul 
to the English reader to be informed, that Al is a 
particle equivalent to our definite article The. 
Thus, Alcoran is composed of two distinct words 
signifying The Koran^ of which the last only 
ought to be retained in English. Again, Ebn is 
the Arabic word for son^ as is Bint or Binta for 
daughter, and with the particle Al after it, accord- 
ing to the Arabic usage, EhnoH is, the son. So 
Abu, father, with the article after it, Abu'* I, the fa- 
ther. Thus, Said Ebn Obcidah Abu Omri, is. 
Said, the son of Obeidah father of Omri ; it be- 
mg usual with the Arabs to take their names of 
distinction from their sons as well as their fathers. 
In like manner, EbnoH Athir, is, the son of Athir ; 
Abu^l Abbas, the father of Abbas : and as Abd 
signifies servant, and Allah, God ; AbdoUah or Ab- 
dallah'is, servant of God; AbdoU Snems, servant 
of the sun, (Sfc 

The deciding between the different modes in 
^ hieh the prophet's name is, or ought to be, writ- 


ten, and the adoption of the most eligible, has been 
a matter of perplexing deliberation. Upon con- 
sulting the Greek Byzantine historians, it appears 
that the same diversity of appellation which now 
prevails, has obtained for seven centuries. In some 
of them we meet with Maometis^ from which 
comes our Mahomet^ the most popular and familial 
title to the English ear ; and in others, Machomed, 
Other varieties among ancient authors might doubt- 
less be specified. But it will be observed, for the 
most part, that writers acquainted with the Arabic 
tongue and who have drawn their materials directly 
from the original fountains, as well as the greai 
body of recent Oriental travellers, are very unani- 
mous in adopting the orthography of the name 
which appears in our title page. If the Arabic 
usage be in fact the proper standard, as will pro- 
bably be admitted, Mohammed^ instead of either 
Manomet, Mahomed, or Mahommed, is the genuine 
form of the name, and the mode in which it should 
be uniformly written and pronounced. The fact, 
that the example of most Oriental scholars of the 
present day has given currency to this form, and 
the probability that it will finally supplant all 
others, has induced us, on the whole, to adopt it 
though with considerable hesitation. 

The following list of names and titles frequently 
occurring in connexion with the affairs of the East, 
together with their etymological import, will not be 
deemed inappropriate to the object of the present 


Mohammed, ) From Hamad; praised, highly ce 
Ahmed. J lebrated, illustrious, glorious, 

Moslem, ^ All from the same root, Aslam : 
Mussulman, I signifying to yield up, dedicate, 
I^'LAM, [ consecrate entirely/ to the service 

IsLAMisM. J of religion, 

Koran. — From Kara, to read ; the reading, Icgendy 
or that which ought to be read. 

Caliph. — A successor; from the Hebrew Chalaph; 

to he changed, to succeed, to pass round in 
a revolution. 

Sultan. — Originally from the Chaldaic Soltan ; 
signifying authority, dominion, principality. 

Vizier. — An assistant, 

Hadj. — Pilgrimage; Hadji; one who makes the 
pilgrimage to Mecca, 

Saracen. — Etymology doubtful ; supposed to be 
from Sarak, to steal ; a plunderer, a robber* 

Hejira, ) The Flight ; applied emphatically to Mo- 
or > hammed's flight from Mecca to Me- 
Hejra. ) dina. See page 106. 

Mufti The principal head of the Mohammedan 

religion, and the resolver of all doubtful 
points of the law. — ^An office of great dig- 
nity in the Turkish empire. 

Imam. — A kind of priest attached to the mosques^ 
whose duty it is occasionally to expound 



a passage of the Koran. They, at the 
same time, usually follow some Tnore lucra 
live employment, 

MooLLAH. — The Moollahs form what ^s called 
the Ulema, or body of doctors in 'heology 
and jurisprudence, who are entrusted with 
the guardianship of the laws of the em- 
pire, and from whose number the Mufti is 

Emir. — Lineal descendants of the Prophet him- 
self, distinguished by wearing turbans of 
deep sea-green, the colour peculiar to all 
the race of Mohammed. They have spe- 
cial immunities on the score of their de- 
scent, and one of them carries the green 
standard of the Prophet when the Grand 
Seignior appears in any public solemnity. 

Pasha. — The title given to the provincial governors. 
A Pasha is to a province or pashalic, what 
the Sultan is to the empire, except that the 
judicial power is in the hands of the cadis, 
the provincial magistrates. The tails of a 
Pasha are the standards which he is allowed 
to carry ; one of three tails is one of three 
standards, which number gives the power 
of life and death. 

Reis Effendi. — This officer may be termed the 
High Chancellor of the Ottoman empire. 
He is at the head of a class of attorneyt 

wtuch ai this time contains tlie best informed 
men of the nation. 

Seraglio. — This word is derived from Serai, a 
term of Persian origin, signifying a palace. 
It is therefore improperly used as synony 
mous with Harem, the apartments of the 
women. The Seraglio is, in strictness of 
speech, the place where the court of the 
Grand Seignior is held ; but it so happenj^ 
that at Constantinople this building includes 
the imperial Harem within its walls. 

Crescent. — The national ensign of the Turks, 
surmounting the domes and minarets at- 
tached to their mosques, as the Cross does 
the churches of the Roman Catholics in 
Christian countries. This peculiar and 
universal use of the Crescent is said to 
have owed its origin to the fact, that at the 
time of Mohammed's flight from Mecca to 
Medina the moon was new. Hence the 
half moon is commemorative of that event. 

Sublime Porte. — This title, which is frequently 
applied to the court, cabinet, or executive 
department of the Ottoman empire, is de- 
rived, as the words import, from a lofty 
arched gateway of splendid construction, 
forming the principal entrance to the Seraglio 
or palace. It is a phrase equivalent to 
" Court of St. James," " Court of St. Cloud.'^ 


As one grand object continually aimed at by the 
compiler of the ensuing pages has been to exhibit 
the Arabian prophet as a signal instrument in the 
hands of Providence, and to put the whole system 
of his imposture, with its causes, accompaniments, 
and effects, where it properly belongs, into the 
great scheme of the Divine administration of the 
world, it is hoped that the prophetic investigations 
of this subject in the Appendix will not be over- 
looked. The writer is disposed to lay a peculiar, 
perhaps an unreasonable, stress of estimation upon 
this portion of the work. Not that he deems the 
interpretation proposed as infallible, but he is in 
hopes that this essay towards a right explication 
may contribute somewhat to inspire a more gene- 
ral interest in this province of scriptural elucida- 
tion, and thus to pave the way for the eventual 
correction of the errors of this and every preceding 
exposition. No one who admits the truth of reve- 
lation but will acknowledge that events, which are 
so overruled in the providence of God as to revo- 
lutionize a great portion of the civilized and Chris- 
tian world, are important enough to claim •^, place 
in the prophetic developements of futurity ; and if 
predicted, these predictions, when accomplished, 
are worthy of being explained. Otherwise, we 
willingly and culpably fcrego one of the main ar 
guments in favour of the truth and divinity of the 
inspired oracles. 


Prkfacb • * 

Introduction 17 


National Descent of the Arabs— Proved to be from Ishmael, Son of 
Abraham 24 


Birth and Parentage of Mohammed— Loses his Parents in early Child- 
hood — Is placed under the Care of his Uncle Abu Taleb— Goes int« 
Syria on a trading Expedition with his Uncle at the Age of thirteen— 
Enters the Service of Cadijah, a Widow of Mecca, whom he afterward 
marries 3S 


Mohammed forms the Design of palming a new Religion upon the 
World — Difficult to account for this Determination — Considerations 
suggested— Retires to the Cave of Hera— Announces to Cadijah tha 
Visits of Gabriel with a Portion of the Koran— She becomes a Convert 
— His slow Progress in gaining Proselytes — Curious Coincidence 44 


Tht Prophet announces his Mission among his Kindred of the Koreisb 
—Meets with a harsh Repulse— Begins to declare it in Public— View 
•f his ftindamental Doctrines— His Pretensions respecting the Korao 
—The disdainOil Rejection of his Message by his fellow-citizens— 
Hia consequent Denunciations against them M 



Mohammed notdisca "^ged by Opposition— The Burden of his Preachinf 
—-Description of Pa» idise — Error to suppose Women excluded — Of 
HoII— Gains some Followers — Challenged to work a Miracle — Hi* 
Reply—The Koran the grand Miracle of his Religion— Judicial Ob- 
duracy charged unon the Unbelievers ^ 


The Koreisb exasperated and alarmed by Mohammed's growing Success 
— Commence Persecution — Some of his Followers seek safety in 
Flight— New Converts— The Koreish form a League against him — ^Abu 
Taleb and Cadijah die — He makes a temporary Retreat from Mecca- 
Returns and preaches with increased Zeal — Some of the Pilgrims 
from Medina converted 63 


The Prophet pretends to have had a Night-journey through the Bereft 
Heavens— Description of the memorable Night by an Arabic writer- 
Account of the Journey— His probable Motives in feigning such an 
•xtravagaat Fiction 8ft 


In RmNi^Kjy sent to the Prophet from Medina — Enters into a League 
with them— Sends thither a Missionary — Another Deputation sent to 
pr^e'r lum an Asylum in that City— His Enemies renew their Perse- 
curions — Determines to fly to Medina— Incidents on the Way— Makes 
a solemn Entry into the City— Apostate Christians supposed to have 
loined Id tendering him the Invitation 101 


^ rho prophet now rai.sed to a high Pitch of Dignity— Builds a Mosque 
—A Change in the Tone of his Revelations— The Faithful now com- 
manded to fight for the true Religion— His first warlike Attempt 
nnsuccesstXil— The Failure compensated in the Second— Account of 
the Battle of Beder — This Victory much boasted of— DiflUculties In the 
Division of ;he Spoil— Caab, a Jew, assassinated at the Instanjo ef 
the Prophet lOf 




Mohammed alters the Kebia— Many of his Followers greatly ofTended 
thereby — ^Mohammedan Institution of Prayer — Appoints the Fast of 
Ramadan— Account of this Ordinance 119 


The Koreis h undertak e a new Expedation against fhe Prophet— The 
Battle of Ohod— Mohammed and his Army entireiy defeated— His Fol- 
lowers murmur— The Prophet's poor Devices to retrieve the Disgrace 
incurred in this Action — Resolves it mainly into the Doctrine of Pre- 
destination — Wine and Games of Chance forbidden— Sophyan, son of 
Caled, slain— War of the Ditch 126 


The Jews the special Objects of Mohammed's Enmity— Several Tribes 
of them reduced to Subjection — Undertakes a Pilgrimage to Mecca — 
The Meccans conclude a Truce ^vith him of ten Years— His Power 
and Authority greatly increased — Has a Pulpit constructed for his 
Mosque— Goes against Chaibar, a City of the Arab Jews— Besieges 
and takes the City, but is poisoned at an Entertainment by a young 
Woman — Is still able to prosecute his Victories 135 


Mohammed alleges a Breach of Faith on the Part of the Meccans, and 
marches an Army against them — The City surrendered to the Con- 
queror—Abu Sophyan and Al Abbas, the Prophet's Uncle, declare 
themselves Converts — Mecca declared to be Holy Ground- Fhe neigh- 
bouring Tribes collect an Army of four thousand Men to arrest the 
growing Power of the Prophet — The Confederates entirely overthrown 
—A rival Prophet arises in the Person of Mosei^ama- la crushed by 
Caled 145 


rht Religion of the Prophet firmly es«tablished— The pnncipal Countries 
subjected by him — The effects of me Poison make alarming Inroads 
upon his Constitution— Perceives his End approaching — Preaches fw 
the last Time in Public-Allis^last Illness and Death — The Moslems 
scarcely persuaded that their Prophet was dead — Tumult appeased 
l»y Abubeker— The Prqxhet buried at Medina— The_ Story of the 
luinging Coffin false .7. 15<V 



Reflections upon the extraordinary Career of Mohammed— Description 
of his Person— General View and Estimate of his Character. ... 156 


A.3iJount of the Prophet's Wives— Cadijah—Ayesha— Hafsa—Zeinah— 
Safya — His Concubines — Singular Precepts in the Koran respecting 
the Wives of Mohammed — His comparative Treatment of Jews and 
Christians — Predictions of the Prophet alleged by Mohammedans to 
be contained in the sacred Scriptures 167 

A/^i'KwoTxA. — ^Inspired Prophecies respecting Mohammed and Moham- 
iriedaniam considered • 181 

A ^?E*^DIX B.— The Caaba, and the Pilgrimage to Mecca 210 

AppiCNDix C.-— The Koran • 227 

Appmndix D.— Mohammedan Confession of Faith 241 

ArpKNDix E.— -Account of Ai^'^rs 2*© 


No revolution recorded in history, if we except 
that effected by the religion of the Gospel, has in- 
troduced greater changes into the state of the civil- 
ized world, than that which has grown out of the 
rise, progress, and permanence of Mohammedan- 
ism. The history and character, therefore, of this 
religion becomes an object of laudable curiosity 
with every enlightened mind. Considered merely 
as a department of the general annals of the 
world, apart from any connexion with the true re- 
ligion, it furnishes some of the most interesting 
records of the human race. But when viewed as 
a part of the great chain of providential and pre- 
dicted events, designed to have a direct bearing 
upon the state of the Christian church, through the 
whole period of its disastrous prevalence, it urges 
a new and stronger claim upon our attention. By 
many distinguished writers, who have deeply stu- 
died its origin, genius, and history, the religion of 
the Koran is confidently regarded rather as a 
Christian heresy, or the product of a Christian 


heresy, than as a heathen superstition.* Conse- 
quently, its fate is involved in that of all false 
doctrines which have corrupted the Gospel , and as 
far as the disclosures of prophecy, or the piesen* 
posture of the nations of the earth, hold out a 
hope of the speedy downfall of delusion, and of 
the establishment of the truth, the eye is naturally 
turned with deepening interest and anxiety to those 
regions of the globe where this religion has so 
Jong prevailed. 

But in proportion to the interest inspired in the 
general subject of Mohammedanism, is that which 
is felt in the life, character, and actions of it* 
founder. That an obscure individual, sprung from 
the roving tribes of Arabia, following no higher 
occupation than that of a caravan-trader, possess- 
ing no peculiar advantages of mental culture, noi 
distinguished in the outset by any pre-eminence of 
power or authority, should yet have been enabled, 
m spite of numerous obstacles, to found such an 
extensive empire over the minds, as well as per- 
sons, of millions of the human race, and that this 
dominion should have been continued for more 
than twelve hundred years, presents a phenomenon 
which increases our wonder the more steadily it is 

iivnce, * says the learned and exemplary Mede, " Mahometanism 
has firequently been accounted a Christian hereby ; and as it had its 
origin in Christianity, so to Christ it looks in the end. For, according t» 
ihe creed of the Mahometans, Jesus is expected to descend to earth, to 
embrace the religion of Mahomet, to slay Antichrist, and to reign witk 
hiB saints." The same authority affirms, " that the Mahometans art 
nearer to Christianity than many of the ancient heretics ; the Cerinthianck 
Gnostics, and Manichees." 


It is proposed in the ensuing pages to exhibit 
the promuient events of the life and fortunes of 
this remarkable man. It will not, of course, be 
expected that, at this distance of time and remote- 
ness of place, a mass of facts entirely new should 
be communicated to the world. The discreet use 
of the materials already extant is all that can now be 
reasonably required or attempted. Yet we are not 
without hope, that in one aspect, at least, our theme 
may present itself arrayed in a character of novelty 
and of unwonted interest ; we mean, in its connexions 
with Christianity. An enlightened Christian esti- 
mate of the prophet of Arabia and his religion is, we 
believe, seldom formed, simply because the sub- 
ject has seldom been so presented as to afford the 
means of such an estimate. A brief sketch, there- 
fore, of the state of Christianity at the time of 
Mohammed's appearance, especially in that region 
of the world in which his imposture took its rise, 
will properly invite the reader's attention at the 
outset of the work. This will show more clearly 
the intended providential bearings of the entire 
fabric of Mohammedan delusion upon the church 
of Christ ; and, apart from this particular view of 
it, we are persuaded that an entirely correct or 
adequate judgment of Islamism cannot be formed. 


State of Christianity in tht Gixth Century^ 
particular It/ in the Eastern Churches. 

The dislinction of Eastern and Western churches, 
hi ecclesiastical history, is founded upon a similai 
geographical division of the Roman empire under 
the emperors, into two great departments : the one 
including the countries of Asia or the East, which 
had been subjected to the Roman arms, and the 
other those of Europe, more properly denominated 
the West. This distinction became still more 
common from the days of Constantine, who re- 
moved the seat of the empire from Rome to Con- 
stantinople, though the final and complete rupture 
between the Greek and Latin churches did not oc- 
cur till the seventh century. 

Over the largest portion of the Roman empire 
the Christian religion was early propagated, and 
for two or three centuries subsisted in a great d^;- 
gree of its original simplicity and purity. Flourisii- 
ing churches were planted by the Apostles them- 
selves in the different provinces of Asia Minor, 
and along the eastern limits of Europe ; from which 
" the word sounded out" to the adjacent territories 
with a multiplying power, so that the cause and 
kingdom of the Redeemer continued to spread long 
after its first propagators had entered into their 
rest. But a gradual degeneracy supervened upon 
the primitive prosperity of the church. During 
the fourth century " the mystery of iniquity,'* 
which had been long before working in secret. 


began to discover itself more openly, and though 
the Christians, by the laws oC the empire, were ex- 
empted from persecution, yet from this time for- 
ward a growing declension and defection among 
them is to be traced through every subsequent 
period, till at length, in the seventh century, " the 
man of sin" became fully revealed, and, a ccording 
to the pred ictions o f ^holy writ, toojtjb^is seat ".as_, 
( joJj^Ke Jgx^a^M^^od^ og^^ffltg Jiinl ex^liiiig 
himself abny^ ^,]l t.hnt, Is p^IIpH Qr^^^ or i ^ wo r- 
sh ipped ." It was about the period at which Mo- 
hammed arose that this fearfdl apostacy had at- 
tained its height — that " the transg r essors had 
come to the fuU"-: ;:7and the degree to which the 
nominal church had departed from the standard of 
faith, morals, and worship contained in the Scrip- 
tures, well nigh surpasses belief. ^ Then it wasj hat 
tho se foul corruption s and s uperstitions were in - 

trOcluc C J into the ^C hlirdli whi^b funnily grpyy p^ 

s uch a pitch of eno rmity as.i o occasion the sep a- 
rat ion i.i Luther an d the other reformers from what 
tlieXjdfig ined and denominated the _ comnnmion p f 
AaJiohri*^ At this period it was, that the venera- 
tion for departed saints and martyrs — the idolatrous 
worship of images and relics — the render jnjr divine 
honours^ to the J^rgj^MHy — tl^e doctrine ofjiur- 
gatory — and the adoraU on of the ^Cx oas, had be- 
c ome firmly establi shed ; and_thusJhaiust£e^o£-^e 
Ooajid_iiuiEei:£d_ajiadLJBc^ andihc-^ssencajof 
Qhris t i anit y was lost under a load j^fJdlaJUid ,^- 
pfr^1Mi^u<? f^pr^m^ni^g 

In the eastern parts of the empire, especially 


Syria and the countries bordering upon Arabia, as 
well as in some partj of Arabia itself, these evils 
were aggravated by the numerous sects and here- 
sies that prevailed, and by the incessant contro- 
versial wars which they waged with each other, 
^'he church was torn to pieces by the fj ^ jious dis > 
putes of the Alians, Sabellians, Nestorians, Euty- 
jphiaus, and Collyridians, by whom the great doc- 
trines of Christianity were so confounded with 
metaphysical subtleties and the jargon of schools, 
that they ceased, in great measure, to be regarded 
as a rule of life, or as pointing out the only_w ay 
oL-^al^^tion. The religion of the Gospel, the 
blessed source of peace, love, and unity among 
men, became, by the perverseness of sectaries, a 
firebrand of burning contention. Council after 
council was called — canon after canon was en- 
acted — prelates were traversing the country in 
every direction in the prosecution of party pur- 
poses, resorting to every base art, to obtain the 
authoritative establishment of their own peculiar 
tenets, and the condemnation and suppression of 
those of their adversaries. The contests also for 
the episcopal office ran so high, particularly in the 
West, that the opposing parties repeatedly had re- 
course to violence, and, in one memorable mstance, 
the interior of a Christian church was stained by 
the blood of a number of the adherents of the rival 
bishops, who fell victims to their fierce contentions. 
Yet it is little to be wondered at that these places 
of preferment should have been so greedily sought 
after by men of corrupt minds, when we learn. 


that they opened the direct road to wealth, luxury, 
and priestly power. Ancient historians represent 
the bishops of that day, as enriched by the pre- 
sents of the opulent, as riding abroad in pompous 
state in chariots and sedans, and surpassing, in the 
extravagance of their feasts, the sumpluousness of 
princes ; while, at the same time, the most barba- 
rous ignorance was fast overspreading the nations 
of Christendom, the ecclesiastical orders them- 
selves not excepted. Among the bishops, the legi- 
timate instnicters and defenders of the church, num- 
bers were to be foimd incapable of composing the 
poor discourses which their office required them to 
deliver to the people, or of subscribing the decrees 
which they passed in their councils. The little 
learning in vogue was chiefly confined to the 
monks. But they, instead of cultivating science, 
or diffusing any kind of useful knowledge, squan- 
dered their time in the study of the fabulous le- 
gends of pretended saints and martyi's, or in com- 
posing histories equally fabulous. 

This woful corruption of doctrine and morals in 
the clergy was followed, as might be expected, by 
a very general depravity of the common people ; 
and though we. cannot suppose that God left hhn- 
self altogether without witnesses in this dark pe- 
riod, yet the number of the truly faithfiil had dwin- 
dled down to a mere remnant, and the wide-spread- 
ing defection seemed to call aloud for the judg- 
ments of heaven. In view of this deplorable state 
of Christianity, anterior to the appearance of Mo- 
hammed, we are prepared to admit at once the 


justness of the following remarks upon the moral 
ends designed to be accomplished by Providence 
in peiTnitting this desolating scourge to arise at this 
particular crisis of the world. 

" At length," says Prideaux, " having wearied 
the patience and long-suffering of God, he raised 
up the Saracens to be the instruments of his wrath 
to punish them for it ; who, taking advantage of the 
weakness of theii power, and the distraction of 
counsels w^hich their divisions had caused among 
them, overran, with a terrible devastation, all the 
eastern provinces of the Roman empire. And 
having fixed that tyranny over them which hath 
ever since afflicted those parts of the world, turned 
every where their churches into mosques, and theii 
worsiiip into a horrid superstition ; and instead of 
that holy religion which they had abused, forced 
on them the abominable imposture of Mahomet. — 
Thus those once glorious and most llourishing 
churches, for a punishment of their wickedness, 
being given up to the insult, ravage, and scorn of 
the worst of enemies, were on a sudden over- 
whelmed with so terrible a destruction as hath re- 
duced them to that low and miserable condition 
under which they have ever since groaned ; the 
all-wise providence of God seeming to continue 
ihem thus unto this day under the pride and perse- 
cution of Mahometan tyranny, for no other end 
but to be an example and warning unto others 
against the wickedness of separation and divi- 



National Descent of the Arabs — Proved to be from Ishmaely son of 

In tracin)^ the genealogy of nations to their pri- 
mitive founders, the book of Genesis is a docu- 
ment of inestimable value. With those wno do 
not hesitate to receive this and the other inspired 
books of the Scriptures as authentic vouchers for 
historical facts, the national descent of the Arabs 
from Ishmael, the son of Abraham, is a point 
which will not admit of dispute. The fact of this 
derivation, however, has been seriously brought 
into question by several skeptical writers, par- 
ticularly by the celebrated historian of the De- 
cline and Fall of the Roman Empire. With his 
usual dexterity of insinuation, he assails the united 
authority of Scripture history and Arabian tradi- 
tion, respecting the pedigree of this remarkable 
people. Yet m no case does he undertake, in a 
formal manner, to disprove the fact to which he 
still labours to give the air of a fiction.* A suc- 
cinct view, therefore, of the testimonies which go 
to establish the Ishmaelitish origin of the AratMi 

* Decline and Fall, ch 1 



may form no unsuitable introduction to the pre- 
sent work, detailing the life and character of the 
individual who has done so much towards render- 
ing the race illustrious. 

From the narrative of Moses we learn not onlv 
the parentage, birth, and settlement of Ishmael in 
Arabia, but the fact also of a covenant made with 
Abraham in his behalf, accompanied with a pro- 
phecy respecting his descendants, singularly ana- 
logous to the prophetic promise concerning the 
more favoured seed of Isaac. "And Abraham 
said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before 
thee ! And God said, Sarah, thy wife, shall bear 
thee a son indeed ; and thou shalt call his name 
Isaac : and I will establish my covenant with him 
for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after 
him. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee : 
Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him 
fruitful, and will multiply liim exceedingly ; twelve 
princes shall he beget, and I will make him a 
great nation."* In like manner, it will be recol- 
lected, the nation of Israel sprung from the twelve 
sons of Jacob, and was divided into twelve tribes. 
In a subsequent part of the Mosaic records we 
find the notice of the incipient fulfilment of this 
prediction concerning the posterity of Ishmael 
" And tliese are the names of the sons of Ishmael, 
by their names, according to their generations : 
The first-born of Ishmael, Nebajoth, and Kedar, 
and Adbeel, and Mibsam, and Mishma, and 
Dumah, and Massah, Hadar, and Tema, Jetur. 

• Genesis, xrii 18—20. 


Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of 
Is}ima#l, and these are their names, by their 
towns, and by their castles : twelve princes ac- 
cording to their nations."* Their geographical 
residence is clearly ascertained in a subsequent 
verse. " And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, 
ihat is before Egypt as thou goest towards Assy- 
ria."! Havilah and Shur, by the consent of the 
best sacred geographers, are allowed to have com- 
posed part of the region between the Euphrates 
and the Red Sea, denominated Arabia.J From 
causes now unknown, the tribes of Nebajoth and 
Kedar appear to have acquired an ascendency 
over the rest, so that the whole country is some- 
times designated from one, sometimes from the 
other of them, just as the entire nation of Israel is 
sometimes called Judah from the superior num- 
bers, power, or influence of that tribe. Among 
the ancient profane historians also we find the 
names ot Nahitheans and Kedarenes frequently 
employed as an appellation of the roving inhabit- 
ants of the Arabian deserts. This testimony 
is directly confirmed by that of Josephus. After 
reciting the names of the twelve sons of Ishmael, 
he adds : — " These inhabit all the country extend- 
ing from the Euphrates to the Red Sea, giving it 
the name of the Nahatenean region. These are 
they who have given names to the whole race of 
the Arabs with their tribes."^ In the fourth cen- 
tury, Jerome, in his commentary on Jeremiah, de« 

* Genesis, XXV. 13— 16. fVer. 18. 

: WeUs's Sac. Geogr. vol i. d. 341. $ Ant. Jud. b. i. ch 12, §4 


scribes Kedar as a country of the Arabian desert, 
inhabited by the Ishmaeiites, who were then termed 
Saracens. The same father, in his commentary 
on Isaiah, again speaks of Kedai- as the country 
of the Saracens, who in Scripture are called Ish- 
maeiites ; and observes of Nebajoth, that he was 
one of the sons of Ishmael, after whose names the 
Arabian desert is called. 

Another source of evidence in relation to the na- 
tional descent of the Arabs, is their having prac- 
lised, from time immemorial, the rite of circum- 
cision.__Josephus has a very remarkable passage 
inching the origin of this rite among the Jews 
and Arabs, in which he first makes mention of the 
circumcision of Isaac ; then hitroduces that of 
Ishmael ; and states concerning each, as matter of 
universal and immemorial notoriety, that the Jews 
and the Arabians severally practised the rite, con- 
formably with the precedents given them, in the 
persons of their respective fathers. His words 
are these: — "Now when Sarah had completed 
her ninetieth, and Abraham his hundredth year, a 
son (Isaac) is born unto them : whom they forth- 
with circumcise on the eighth day ; and from him 
the Jews derive their custom of circumcising 
children after the same interval. But the Ara- 
bians administer circumcision at the close of the 
thirteenth year : for Ishmael, the founder of their 
nation, the son of Abraham by his concubine, was 
circumcised at that time of life."* Similar to this 
is the testimony of Origen, who wrote in the third 

* Ant. Jud b. i. ch. 10, $ 5. 


i'entury of the Christian era. " The natives of Ju- 
dea," says he, "generally circumcise their children 
on the eighth day ; but the Ishmaelites who in- 
habit Arabia universally practise circumcision in 
the thirteenth year. For this history tells us con- 
cerning them."* This writer, like Josephus, lived 
near the spot, and had the best opportunities of ob- 
taining correct mformation respecting the Arabians. 
It is evident, therefore, beyond contradiction, from 
his words, that the fact of their derivation from 
Abraham through Ishmael was an established 
point of historical record, and not of mere tradi- 
tionary fame, at the period at which he wrote. 

The direct testimony to the Ishmaelitish ex- 
traction of the Arabs furnished by the earliest re- 
cords of the Bible, and confirmed as we see by foreign 
authorities, is strikingly corroborated by repeated 
references, bearing upon the same point, in later 
inspired writers, particularly the prophets. Through 
the long course of sacred history and prophecy, 
we meet with reiterated allusions to existing tribes 
of Arabia, descending from Ishmael, and bearing 
the names of his several sons, among which those 
of Nebajoth and Kedar usually predominate. 
Thus the Prophet Isaiah, in foretelling the future 
conversion of the Gentiles, makes mention of the 
" rams of Nebajoth,''^ the eldest, and " all the flocks 
of Kedar^*^ the second of the sons of Ishmael ; 
that is, of the Arab tribes descending from these 
brothers ; a passage which not only aflbrds strong 

* Orig. Op. torn. ii. p 16. «<1. Ben©^ 


proofof our main position, but conveys also an in- 
timation of the future in-gathering of the Moham- 
medan nations into the Christian Church. The 
same Prophet, in another part of his predictions, 
notices " the cities of the wilderness^ the villages 
that Kedar doth inhabit." And again, when de- 
mouncing impending calamity upon the land of Ara- 
bia, he foretells how " all the glory of Kedar shall 
fail ;" he employs the name of this single tribe as 
synonymous with that of the entire peninsula. In 
this connexion the words of the Psalmist may be 
cited : — " Wo is me that I sojourn in Mesech, that 
I dwell in the tents of Kedar,^^ These words arc 
supposed by some of the Jewish commentators to 
have been written by David, under the influence of 
inspiration, as the prophetic plaint of the Christian 
Church, labouring and groaning, as it has some- 
times done, under the yoke of Mohammedan op- 
pression. In Jeremiah, also, we find mention of 
Kedar. He speaks of it as " the wealthy nation 
that dwelleth without care, which have neither 
gates nor bars, which dwell alone." Ezekiel, 
moreover, prophesies conjointly of " Arabia and ail 
the princes of Kedar.^^ An allusion to Tema, the 
ninth son of Ishmael, as the name of a warlike 
people of Arabia, occurs as early as in the book os 
Job : " The troops of Tema looked, the compa- 
nies of Sheba waited for them." Lastly, the tiibes 
sprung from Jetur and Naphishy the tenth and ele- 
venth sons of Ishmael, are commemorated in the 
first book of Chronicles, who are there called Ha" 
qaritesy from Haj^ar, the mother of Ishmael, and 


of whom a hundred thousand males were taken 

When to this mass of Scripture evidence of the 
descent of the Arabs from Ishmael we add the ac 
knowledged coincidence between the national cha- 
racter of this people in every age, and the predicted 
personal character of their progenitor — " And he 
will be a wild man ; his hand will be against every 
man, and every man's hand against him" — and the 
fact, that the Ishmaelitish origin of the Arabs has 
ever been the constant and unvarying tradition of 
that people themselves, the subject scarcely admits 
of a more irrefragable proof. There are certainly 
few landmarks of history more universal or more 
permanent than the names of countries affixed by 
original settlers, or flowing from them, and we may 
as justly question the derivation of Hungary from 
the Huns, France from the Franks, Turkey from the 
Turks, or Judea from Judah and the Jews, as those 
of the several districts of Arabia from the respective 
sons of Ishmael.* 

* The argument in this chapter is condensed from a mora ample di»- 
onssion of the subject in the Appendix to '^ Forster's MaooioecaaieiiB 



Birth and Paientage of Mohammed — Loses his Parents in early Child' 
hood — /* placed under the care of his uncle Abu Taleb — Goes inta 
Syria on a trading expedition with his uncle at the age of thirteen — 
Enters the service of Cadijahy awidow of Mecca, whom he afterward 

Mohammed, the Legislator of Arabia, the Founder 
of the Moslem or Mohammedan religion, and 
thence dignified by himself and by his followers 
with the title of Prophet and Apostle of God, was 
horn at Mecca, a city of Arabia, A. D. 569.* His 
lin^eage, notwithstanding that many of the earlier 
Christian writers, under the influence of mveterate 
prejudice against the prophet and his religion, have 
represented his origin as base and ignoble, is clearly 
shown to have been honourable and illustrious ; at 
least, when rated by the common standard ol dis- 
tinction among his countrymen. The ancient Ara- 
bians, deriving their pedigree from Ishmael, and 
inheriting the nomadic habits of their ancestor, had 
from time immemorial been divided into a number 
of separate independent tribes, roving at large over 
4he immense sandy regions of which their country 
is composed, except where here and there a few 
thousands of them were gathered into cities, and 
engaged in merchandise. Some of these tribes. 

» Other authorities place his birth in A. D. 571. The precise year can 
Qot Z* determined with certainty. 


from various causes, were more numerous, power- 
ful, and renowned than others. That of Koreish, 
from the founder of which Mohammed was m a di- 
rect line descended, had long been accounted the 
most noble of them all, and his ancestors, for se- 
veral generations, had ranked among the princes of 
Mecca, and the keepers of the keys of the Caaba,* its 
sacred temple. H is father^ s^ name was Abdallah, 
one of the thirteen sons of Abdol Motalleb, the 
chief personage in his day among the Koreish, and 
inheriting from his father Hashem the piincipal 
place in the government of Mecca, and succeeding 
him in the custody of the Caaba. This Hashem, 
the great-grandfather of Mohammed, was the most 
distinguished name in all the line of his predeces- 
sors, and from him not only is the appellation of 
Hashemites bestowed upon the kindred of the pro- 
phet, but even to this day, the chief magistrate, 
both at Mecca and Medina, who must always be 
of the race of Mohammed, is invariably styled 
•'The l^rnice of the Hashemites." The name of 
MohaaunecTs mother was Amina, whose parentage 
was traceable also to a distinguished family of the 
same tribe. Her lot was envied in gaining the hand 
of the son of Abdol Motalleb, as the surpassing 
beauty of his person is said to have ravished the 
hearts of a hundred maidens of Arabia, who were 
left, by his choice of Amina, to sigh over the wreck 
of their fondest hopes. 

Abdallah, though the son of a rich and princely 

* See Appendix B 
4/*— o 


father, was possessed of but little wealth, and as he 
died while his son was an infant, or, as some say, 
before he was born, it is probable that that little 
was seized with the characteristic rapacity of the 
A.rabs, and shared among his twelve surviving bro- 
thers, the powerful uncles of Mohammed. Al- 
though the laws of the Koran, in respect to inherit- 
ances, promulgated by the prophet himself, breathe 
more of the spirit of equity and kindness ; yet the 
pagan Arabs, previous to his time, as we learn from 
Eastern writers, were wont to treat widows and or 
phans with great injustice, frequently denying them 
any share in the inheritances of their fathers and 
husbands, under the pretence that it ought to be dis- 
tributed among those only who were able to bear 
arms, and disposing of widows, even against their 
own consent, as a part of their husband's posses- 
sions. The fatherless Mohammed, accordingly, 
faring like the rest of his countrymen, received, in 
the distribution of the patrimony, no more than five 
camels and an Ethiopian female slave. 

The Moslem writers, in order to represent the 
birth of their pretended prophet as equally marvel- 
lous with that of Moses or of Christ, the ancient 
messengers of God who preceded him, have re- 
ported a tissue of astonishing prodigies said to have 
occurred in connexion with that event. If tlie 
reader will receive their statements with the same 
implicit faith with which they seem to be delivered, 
he must acknowledge, that at the moment when the 
favoured infant was ushered into the world, a flood 
of light burst forth with him and illuminated every 


pari of Syria ; that the waters of the Lake Sawa 
weie entirely dried up, so that a city was built upon 
its bottom: that an earthquake threw down four- 
teen towers of the king of Persia's palace ; that 
the sacred fire of the Persians was extinguished, 
and all the evil spirits which had inhabited the moon 
and stars were expelled together from their celes- 
tial abodes, nor could they ever after animate idols 
or deliver oracles on earth. The child also, if we 
may trust to the same authorities, discovered the 
most wonderful presages. He was no sooner born 
than he fell prostrate, in a posture of humble ado- 
ration, praying devoutly to his Creator, and saying, 
" God is great ! There is no God but God, ana I am 
his prophet !" By these and many other superna- 
tural signs, equally astounding, is the prophet's na- 
tivity said to have been marked. To some of them 
it would indeed appear that the earlier Christians 
gave an honest credence ; with this difference, how- 
ever, between their belief and that of his foJlowers, 
that while the latter ascribed them without hesita- 
tion to the hand of God, giving in this manner a 
gracious attestation to the prophetic character ol 
his servant, the former referred them directly to the 
agency of the devil, who might naturally be sup- 
posed, they thought, to v/ork some special won- 
ders on the present occasion. Upon the narrative 
of these miraculous phenomena the reader will form 
his own judgment. They are mentioned in the ab- 
sence of all authentic information touching the pe- 
riod and the event in question. Until the facts al- 
leged are proved, by competent historical testi- 

8fi LIFE or MOrlAMMED. 

mony, to have taken place, it is scarcely necessary 
to call in the aid of divine or diabolical agency to 
account for them ; as it is much easier to imagine 
that an imposition or illusion may have been prac- 
tised upon the first, reporters, or that the whole ca- 
talogue of wonders is a mere fabrication of inte- 
rested partisans, than that the ordinary course of 
nature should have been disturbed at this crisis. 

The Arabic biographers of the prophet, more- 
over, inform us that Abdol Motalleb, his grandfa- 
ther, the seventh day after the birth of the child, 
gave a great entertainment, to which he invited the 
principal men of the Koreish, who, after the repast 
was over, desired him to give the infant a name. 
Abdol Motalleb immediately replied — " I name this 
child Mohammed." The Koreish grandees at once 
expressed their surprise that he did not call his 
grandson, according to custom, by a name which 
had belonged to some one of the family. But he 
persisted in the selection he had made, saying, 
** May the Most High glorify in Heaven him 
whom he has created on earth !" alluding to the 
name Mohammed, which signifies praised or glo- 

At the early age of two years Mohammed lost 
his father; and four years after, his mother. The 
helpless orphan, now cast upon the kindness of his 
relations, was taken into the house and family of 
his grandfather, under whose guardian care he re- 
mained but two years, when the venerable Motalleb 
hiiriself was also called to pay the debt of nature. 
\u a dying charge, he confided this tender plant* of 


the ancient stock of the Koreish to the faithful handa 
of Abu Taleb, the eldest of his sons and the suc- 
cessor of his authority. " My dearest, best beloved 
son" — thus history or tradition reports the tenor of 
his instructions — " to thy charge I leave Moham- 
med, the son of thine own brother, strictly recom- 
mended, whose natural father the Lord hath been 
pleased to take to himself, with the intent that this 
dear child should become ours by adoption ; and 
much dearer ought he to be unto us than merely an 
adopted son. Receive him, therefore, at my dying 
hands, with the same sincere love and tender bow- 
els with which I deliver him to thy care. Honour, 
love, and cherish him as much, or even more than 
if he had sprung from thine own loins ; for all the 
honour thou showest unto him shall be trebled unto 
thee. Be more than ordinarily careful m thy 
treatment towards him, for it will be repaid thee 
with interest. Give him the preference before thine 
own children, for he exceedeth them and all man-, 
kind in excellency and perfection. Take notice, 
that whensoever he calleth upon thee, thou answer 
iiim not as an infant, as his tender age may re- 
quire, but as thou wouldst reply to the most aged 
and venerable person when he asketh thee any 
question. Sit not down to thy repasts of any sort 
soever, either alone or in company, till thy worthy 
nephew Mohammed is seated at the table before 
thee ; neither do thou ever ofter to taste of any 
kind of viands, or even to stretch forth thine hand 
towards the same, until he hath tasted thereof. If 
thou observest these my injunctions, thy goods 


shall always increase, and in nowise be dimi- 

Whether Abu Taleb recognised in the deposite 
thus solemnly committed to his trust an object of 
such high destiny and such profound veneration as 
his father's language would imply, we are not in- 
fonned ; but there is good evidence that he acted 
towards his nephew the part of a kind friend and 
protector, giving him an education, scanty indeed, 
but equal to that usually received by his country 
men. His followers, it is true, in order to magnify 
their p^-ophet's supernatural gifts, and render the 
compositioa-of-4h«-KaraiL,a.§re.ater miracle, gene- 
rally affirm that he wa&, wholly illiterate, neither 
alJC^o X^ad or write. In this, indeed, they are au- 
thorized by the pretensions of Mohammed himself, 
who says,^^Thtis'Tf2nre--^we- seiii down the book 
of the Koran unto thee. — Thou couldst not read 
aiiy book before this ; J neither .couldst thou write 
it wdth thy right hand : then had the gainsayers 
justly doubted of the divine original thereof."! — 
*• Believe, therefore, in God and his apostle, the 
illitev-ii^ prophet." J But in the Koran, a complete 
hhur of imposture, the last thing we are to expect 
is an honest adherence to truth. There is abun- 
dant evidence, from the pages of this spurious re- 
velation itself, that writing was an art in common 
use among the Arabs at that time. The following 
precept concerning bonds puts it beyond question. 

♦Morgan's Mahometanism Explained, vol. i. p 90 
t Koran, ch. xxix. t Ch. vii. 


*• O, true believers, when ye bind yourselves one to 
the other in a debt for a certain time, write it down ; 
and let a writer write between you according to 
justice, and let not the writer refuse writing ac- 
cording to what God hath taught him." We learn 
also that Ali Taleb, the son of Abu Taleb, and 
cousin of Mohammed, with whom the prophet 
passed his childhood, afterward became one of 
his scribes, of whom he had a number employed 
in making copies of the Koran as its successive 
portions were revealed to him. How did it happen 
that Abu Taleb should have had his son instructed 
in writing, and not his nephew ? The city of Mecca, 
moreover, being a place of traffic, the merchants 
must have hourly felt the want of some mode 
of recording their transactions ; and as we are in- 
formed that Mohammed himself was for several 
years engaged in mercantile pursuits before he 
commenced the propagation of a new religion, it 
is scarcely supposable that he was unacquainted 
with the use of letters. 

Of the infancy, childhood, and youth of the fu- 
ture prophet no authentic details have reached us. 
The blank has indeed been copiously supplied by 
the fabulous legends of his votaries, but as they are 
utterly void of authority, they will not repay the 
trouble of transcription. Being destined by his 
uncle to the profession of a merchant, he was taken, 
as some affirm, at the age of thirteen, into Syria with 
Abu Taleb's trading caravan, in order to his being 
perfected in the business of his intended vocation. 
Upon the simple circumstance of this journey, the 


superstition of his followers has grafted a series of 
miraculous omens all portending his future greatness. 
Among other things, it is said by his historians, thai 
upon his arriving at Bozrah, a certain man named 
Boheira, a Nestorian monk, who is thought by Pri- 
deaux to be otherwise called Sergius, advanced 
through the crowd collected in the market-place, 
and, seizing him by the hand, exclaimed, " There 
will be something wonderful in this boy ; for when 
he approached he appeared covered with a cloud." 
He is said to have affirmed also, that the dry trees 
■nder which he sat were every where instantly 
covered with green leaves, which served him for 
a shade, and that the mystic seal of prophecy was 
impressed between his shoulders, in the form of a 
small lummous excrescence. According to others, 
instead of a bright cloud being the criterion by 
which his subsequent divine mission was indicated, 
the mark by which Boheira knew him was the 
prophetic light which shone upon his face. This 
miraculous light, according to the traditions of the 
Mohammedans, was first placed upon Adam, and 
from him transmitted to each individual in the line 
of his descendants, who sustained the character of 
a true prophet. The hallowed radiance at length 
rested upon the head of Abraham, from whom it 
was <1)vided into a twofold emanation, the greater 
Dr clearer descending upon Isaac and his seed, the 
).css or obsc^urer to Ishmael and his posterity. 
The light hi the family of Isaac is represented as 
having been perpetuated in a constant glow through 
5i long line of inspired messengers and prophets. 


among the children of Israel ; but that in the fa- 
mily of Ishmael is said to have been suppressed, 
and to have lain hidden through the whole tract of 
ages, from Ishmael down to the coming of Mo- 
hammed, in whom the sacred symbol was again re- 
vived, and now pointed out to Boheira the high des- 
tiny of him on whose person it appeared. How- 
ever intrinsically vain and visionary this legend may 
be deemed, it may, nevertheless, be worth advert- 
ing to, as affording perhaps, in its remoter sources, 
a hint of the origin of the halo^ which in most of 
the pauitings or engravings of the Saviour is made 
to encircle his sacred brows. 

When Abu Taleb was about to return with his 
caravan to Mecca, Boheira, it is said, again re- 
peated his solemn premonition, coupled with a 
charge, respecting the extraordinary youth. *' De- 
part with this child, and take great care that he 
does not fall into the hands of the Jews ; for your 
nephew will one day become a very wonderful 

The early Christian writers have laid hold of 
the narrative of this interview with the Syrian 
monk, as affording a clew to the true origin and 
authorship of the Koran. According to them, this 
Boheira, alias Sergius, who, th^y say, was an apos- 
tate Jew or Christian, instructed Mohammed in the 
histories and doctrines of the Bible, and that they 
in concert laid a plan for creating a new religion, 
a motley compound of Judaism and Christianity, to 
be carried into execution twenty years afterward ; 
and that accordingly the monk, rather than Mo- 


hammed, is entitled to the credit of the most im- 
portant parts of the Koran. Others again, deem- 
mg it altogether incredible that a youth of thirteen 
should have conceived the vast idea of forming 
and propagating a new religion, place this corres- 
pondence with Sergius at a later period of his life ; 
that is to say, when he was not far from twenty 
years of age, at which time he is alleged to have 
taken a second journey into Syria. But, as we 
shall see hereafter, the question how far Moham- 
med was assisted by others in the composition of 
the Koran is not susceptible at the present day of 
a satisfactory solution. 

The next remarkable event in the life of Mo- 
hammed ls"Tiis appearance in the character of a 
soldier. At the age of fourteen, or, as others say, 
nearer the age of twenty, he served under his 
uncle, who commanded the troops of his tribe, the 
Koreish, in their wars against the rival tribes of 
the JSjenan and the Hawazan. They returned 
from the expedition victorious, and this circum- 
stance doubtless tended to render the people of the 
tribe still more devoted to the uncle and the ne- 
phew, and to acquire for Mohammed a notoriety 
which he was afterward enabled to turn essentially 
to his account. 

From this time to the age of twenty-five he ap- — -. 
pears to have continued in the employ of Abu { 
Taleb, engaged in mercantile pursuits. As he ' 
advanced in years there is reason to believe thai 
his personal endowments, which were doubtless of 
a superior order, together with strong native powers 


of intellect, an acute observation, a ready wit, and 
pleasing address combined to render him both 
popular and prominent among his associates. 
Such, at least, is the concurrent testimony of all 
his biographers, and we have no means of invali- 
dating their statements. It is, however, natural 
to suppose, that a strong colouring would be put 
upon every superior quality of a pretended mes- 
senger of God, sent to restore the true religion to 
the world, and that he, who was by character a 
prophet, should be represented by his adherents 
as a paragon of all external perfections. About 
this period, by the assistance of his uncle, he was 
entered into the service of a rich trading widow of 
his native city, who had been twice married, and 
whose name was Cadijah. In the capacity of 
factor or agent to this his wealthy employer, he took 
a second journey of three years into Damascus 
and the neighbouring regions of Syria, in which he 
devoted himself so assiduously to the interests of 
Cadijah, and managed the trust committed to him 
so entirely to her satisfaction, that upon his return 
she rewarded his fidelity with the gift of her hand 
and her fortune. It may be imagined, that in 
entering into this alliance, she was probably in 
fluenced by the family connexions and the personal 
attractions of her suitor. But whatever were 
her motives, the union subsequently appears to 
have been one of genuine affection on both sides ; 
Mohammed never forgot the favours he had re- 
ceived from his benefactress, and never made her 
repent of having placed her person and her for- 


tune at his absolute disposal. Although Cadijah, 
at the time of her marriage, was forty, and Mo- 
hammed not more than twenty-eight, yet till the 
age ol* sixty-four, when she died, she enjoyed the 
undivided affection of her husband ; and that too 
m a country where polygamy was allowed, and 
very frequently practised. By her he had eight 
children, of whom Fatima alone, his eldest daugh- 
ter, survived him. And such was the prophet's 
respect to the memory of his wife, that after her 
death he placed her in the rank of the four per- 
fect womea 



Itohammei forms the design of palming a new Religion upon tlu 
world— Difficult to account for this determination — Consideration* 
suggested — Retires to the Cave of Hera — Announces to Cadijah the 
Visits of Gabriel with a portion of the Koran — She becomes a Cotv- 
vert—His slow progress in gaining Proselytes — Curious Coin' 

Being now raised by his marriage to an equality 
with the first citizens of Mecca, Mohammed was 
enabled to pass the next twelve years of his life 
m comparative affluence and ease ; and, until the 
age of forty, nothing remarkable distinguished the 
histor} of the future prophet. It is probable that 
he still followed the occupation of a merchant, as 
the Arabian nation, like their ancestors the Ish-. 
maelites, have always been greatly addicted to 
commerce. It was during this interval, however, 
that he meditated and matured the bold design of 
palming a new religion upon the world. This there- 
fure becomes, in its results, the most important 
period in his whole life ; and it is greatly to be 
regretted, that the policty of the impostor, and the 
ravages of time, have deprived us of all sources of 
information, which might afford a satisfactory clew 
to the real origin of this design. The circum- 
stances which first suggested it, the peculiar train of 
reflection which went to cherish it, the ends which 
he proposed to accomplish by it, together with the 
real agencies employed in bringing it forward, are 



all matters wrapped in impenetrable mystery; yet 
these are the very points on which the inquiring 
mind, intent upon tracing great events to their pri- 
mary sources, is most eager for information. At 
the present day, it is impossible to determine whe- 
ther Mohammed commenced his career as a de- 
luded enthusiast or a designing impostor. Those 
who have most profoundly considered the whole 
subject of Mohammedanism in its rise, progress, 
genius, and effects, are, on this point, divided in 

^ their opinion. 

On the one hand, it is supposed by some, that 
Mohammed was constitutionally addicted to reli- 
gious contemplation — that his native temperament 
was strongly tinged wTOTenthusiasm — and that he 
might originally have been free from any sinister 
motive in giving scope to the innate propensities 
of his character. As the result of his retired spe- 
t ulations he might, moreover, it is said, have been 

) sincerely persuaded in his own mind of the grand 
article of his faith, the unity of God, which in his 
opinion was violated by all the rest of the world, 
and, therefore, might have deemed it a meritorious 
work to endeavour to liberate his countrymen and 
his race from the bondage of error. Impelled by 
this motive in the outset, and being aided by a 
warm imagination, he might at length have come, 
it is affirmed, as enthusiasts have often done, to 
the firm conviction, that he was destined by Pro- 

j vidence to be the mstrument of a great and glo- 

[ rious reformation ; and the circumstance of his 
being accustomed to solitary retirement would na- 


turally cause this persuasion to take a deeper root 
in his mind. In this manner, it is supposed, his 
career might have commenced ; but finding himself 
to have succeeded beyond his expectations, and 
the force of temptation growing with the increase 
of his popularity and power, his self-love at last 
overpowered his honesty, ambition took the place 
of devotion, his designs expanded with his success, 
and he who had entered upon a pious enterprise 
as a well-meaning reformer degenerated in the end 
into a wilful impostor, a gross debauchee, and an 
unprincipled despot. 

On the other hand, it is maintained, and we 
think with more of an air of probability, that his 
conduct from the very first bears the marks of a 
deep-laid and systematic design ; that although he 
might not have anticipated all the results which 
crowned the undertaking, yet in every step of his 
progress he acted with a shrewdness and circum- 
spection very little savouring of the dreams of en- 
thusiasm ; that the pretended visits of an angel, and 
his publishing, from time to time, the chapters of 
the Koran, as a divine revelation, are wholly incon- 
sistent with the idea of his being merely a deluded 
fanatic ; and that, at any rate, the discovery of his 
inability to work a miracle, the grand voucher of 
a divine messenger, must have been sufficient to 
dispel the fond illusion from his mind. 

Many circumstances, moreover, it is said, may 
be adduced, which might have concurred to prompt 
and favour the design of this arch imposture 
]. Mohammed's genius was bold and aspiring 


His family had formerly held the ascendency in 
rank and power in the city of Mecca, and it was 
merely his misfortune in having lost his father in 
infancy, and being left an orphan, that prevented 
him from succeeding to the same distinction. It 
was therefore the dictate of a very obvious prin- 
ciple of human nature, that he sltould contrive, if 
possible, to make the fortune and influence ac- 
quired by his marriage a step to still higher ho- 
nours, and to raise himself to the ancient dignity 
of his house. 2. He had travelled much in his 
own and foreign countries. His journeys would 
of course bring him acquainted with the tenets of 
the different sects of the religious world, particu- 
larly the Jewish and the Christian, which were 
then predominant, and the latter greatly corrupted 
and torn to pieces with internal dissensions. Be- 
ing a sagacious observer of men, he could not fail 
to perceive that the distracted state of the exist- 
ing religions had put the Eastern world into a 
posture extremely favourable to the propagation 
of a new system. His own countrymen, the 
people of Arabia, were, indeed, for the most part 
sunk in idolatry, but the vestiges of a purer faith, 
derived from patriarchal times, were still lingering 
among them, to a degree that afforded him the 
hope of recovering them to a sounder creed. 3. 
The political state of things at that time was such 
as signally to favour his project. The Roman 
empire, on the one hand, and the Persian monarchy 
on the other, had both become exceedingly en- 
feebled in the process of a long decline, towards? 


the last stages of which they were now rapidly 
approaching. The Arabs, on the contrary, were 
a strong and flourishing people, abounding in num- 
bers, and inured to hardships. Their being divided 
into independent tribes presented also advantages 
for the spread of a new faith which would not 
have existed had they been consolidated into one 
government. As Mohammed had considerable op- 
portunities to acquaint himself with the peculiar 
situation of these empires ; as he had carefully noted 
the genius and disposition of the people which com- 
posed them; and as he possessed a capacity to 
render every circumstance subservient to his pur- 
pose, it is contended, that his scheme was much 
more legitimately the fruit of policy than of piety, 
and that the pseudo-prophet, instead of being pitied 
for his delusion, is rather to be reprobated for his 
base fabrication. 

After all, it is not improbable that Infinite Wis 
dom has so ordered it, that a veil of unpenetrated 
darkness should rest on the motives of the impos- 
tor, in order that a special providence may be re- 
cognised in the rise and establishment of this arch- 
delusion in the world. In the absence of sufficient 
human causes to account for the phenomena, we 
are more readily hiduced to acknowledge a divine 
interposition. In the production of events which 
are overruled in the government of God to operate 
as penal evils for the punishment of the guilty^ 
reason and revelation both teach us reverently to 
acknowledge the visitation of the Divine Hand, 
whoever or whatever may have been the subordi 
47—4 E 


iiate agents, or their motives. " Is there evil in 
the city, saith the Lord, and I have not done it?" 
1. e. the evil of sufferings not of sin. It cannot be 
doubted that, as a matter of fact, the rise and reign 
of Mohammedanism has resulted in the infliction 
of a most terrible scourge upon the apostate 
churches in the East, and hi other portions of 
Christendom ; and, unless we exclude the Judge of 
the world from the exercise of his judicial prero- 
gatives in dealing with his creatures, we cannot err, 
provided we do not infringe upon man's moral 
agency, in referring the organ of chastisement to 
the will of the Most High. The life and actions 
of Mohammed himself, and his first broaching the 
religion of the Koran, are but the incipient links in 
a chain of political revolutions, equal in magnitude 
and importance to any which appear on the page 
of history — revolutions, from which it would be 
downright impiety to remove all idea of providential 
ordainment. If then we acknowledge a peculiar 
providence in the astonishing success of the Sara- 
cen arms subsequent to the death of Mohammed, 
we must acknowledge it also in the origination of 
that system of religion which brought them unde 
one head, and inspired them to the achievement o 
such a rapid and splendid series of conquests. 

The pretended prophet, having at length, after 
years of deliberation, ripenet: all his plans, pro- 
ceeded in the most gradual and cautious manner to 
put them in execution. He had been, it seems, for 
some time in the habit of retiring daily to a certain 
c^ve in the vicinity of Mecca, called the cave of 


Hera, for the ostensible purpose of spending his 
time in fasting, prayer, and holy meditation. The 
important crisis having now arrived, lie began to 
break to his wife, on his return home in the eve- 
ning, the solemn intelhgence of supernatural visions 
and voices with which he was favoured in his re- 
tirement. Cadijah, as might be expected, was at 
first incredulous. She treated his visions as the 
dreams of a disturbed imagination, or as the delu- 
sions of the devil.* Mohammed, however, per- 
sisted in assuring her of the reality of these com- 
munications, and rising still higher in his demands 
upon her credulity, at length repeated a passage 
which he affirmed to be a part of a divine revela- 
tion>_ X(ecently c onveyed to him by the ministry of 
--^h§.^ angel . Gabriel. ITie^TuSaorable^ riigfit on 
-wbieh this visit was made by the heavenly mes- 

jengeris^ called th^^Jt, night of Al Kadr," or the 
night of the divine decree, and is greatly celebrated, 

"as it was the same night on which the entire Koran 
descended from the seventh to the lowest heaven, 
to be thence revealed by Gabriel in successive por- 
tions as^occtision might require. TKe Koran has 
a wtiole clfiapter devoted to the commemoration of 
this event, entitled Al Kadr, It is as follows : 
" In the name of the most merciful God. Verily, 
we sent down the Koran in the night of Al Kadr. 
And what shall make thee understand how excel- 
lent the night of Al Kadr is ? This night is better 
than a thousand months. Therein do the angels 

* This is the account given by Prideaux. Sale, however, says, 
" I do not remember to have read in any Fiastern author, that Cadijah 
sver rejected her husband's pretences as delusions, or suspected him of 
nny imposture." — Prelim. Disc, jo- 58. note. 


descend, and the spirit Gabriel also, by the per* 
mission of tlieir Lord, with his decrees concerning 
every matter. It is peace until the rising of the 
morn."* On this favoured nicrht, between the 23d 
^and 24th ot harmtttttft^ncx^ordrng to the j}roph^t^4he 
angel appeared to him, in glorious form, to commu- 
nicate the happy tidings of his mission. The light 
^issuing from his body, if the apostle-elect may be 
-...believed^ was too (JazzKng for mortal eyes to be- 
hold ; he- fainted under the splendour ; nor was ii 
till Gabriel had assumed a human form, that he 
^puld venture to approach or look upon him. The 

^ig^i«jJ.l^!ipri^J *iloud, " O MoHAM ;ED, THOU ART 

Gabriel !" " Read !" continued the angel ; the 
prophet declared that he was unable to read. 
" Read !" Gabriel again exclaimed, " read, in the 
name of thy Lord, who hath created all things ; 
who hath created man of congealed blood. Read, 
by thy most beneficent Lord, who hath taught the 
use of the pen ; who teacheth man that which he 
knoweth not."t The prophet, who professed 
hitherto to have been illiterate, then read the joy- 
ful tidings respecting his ministry on earth, when 
the angel, having accomplished his mission, majes- 
tically ascended to heaven, and disappeared from 
his view. When the story of this surprising inter- 
view with a celestial visitant was related to Cadijah 
in connexion with the passage repeated, her un- 
belief, as tradition avers, was wholly overcome, 
and not only so, but she was wrought by it into a 
kind of ecstasy, declaring, " By Him in whose 

* Koran, ch xcvii. ♦ Ch xcviii 


hands her soul was, that she trusted her husband 
l«SuIdlndecd 6ne day[^^ of his 

nation." In the height of her joy she immediately 
imparted what she had heard to one Waraka, her 
cousin, who is supposed by some to have been in 
the secret, and who, being a Christian, had learned 
to write in the Hebrew character, and was tole- 
rably well versed m the Jewish and Christian 
Scriptures. He unhesitatingly assented to hei 
opinion respecting the divine designation of hei 
husband, and even affirmed, that Mohammed was 
no other than the great prophet foretold by Moses, 
the son of Amram. This belief that both the pro- 
phet and his spurious religion were subjects of in- 
spired prediction in the Old Testament Scriptures, 
is studiously inculcated in the Koran. " Thy 
Lord is the mighty, the merciful. This book is 
certainly a revelation from the Lord of all crea- 
tures, which the faithful spirit (Gabriel) hath caused 
to descend upon thy heart, that thou mightest be a 
preacher to thy people in the perspicuous Arabic 
tongue ; and it is borne witness to in the Scriptures 
of former ages. Was it not a sign unto them that 
the wise men among the children of Israel knew 


Having succeeded in gaining over his wife, he 
persevered in that retired and austere kind of life 
which tends to beget the reputation of pre-eminent 
sanctity, and ere long had his servant, Zeid Ebn 
Hareth, added to the list of proselytes. He re- 
warded the faith of Zeid by manumitting him from 

* Koran, cb. xxiii 


servitude, and it has hence become a standing rule 
among his followers always to grant their freedom 
to such of their slaves as embrace the religion of 
the prophet. Ali, the son of Abu Taleb, Moham- 
med's cousin, was his next convert, but the impe- 
tuous youth, disregarding the other two as persons 
of comparatively little note, used to style himself 
the first of believers. His fourth and most import- 
ant convert was Abubeker, a powerful citizen of 
Mecca, by whose influence a number of persons 
'lossessed of rank and authority were induced to 
profess the religion of Islam. These were 0th- 
man, Zobair, Saad, Abdorrahman, and Abu Obei- 
dah, who afterward became the principal leaders 
in his armies, and his main instruments in the 
establishment both of his imposture and of his 
empire. Four years were spent in the arduous 
task of winning over these nine individuals to the 
faith, some of whom were the principal men of 
the city, and who composed the whole party of 
his proselytes previously to his beginning to pro- 
claim his mission in public. He was now forty- 
four years of age. 

It has been remarked, as somewhat of a striking 
coincidence, that the period of Moliammed's retiring 
to the cave of Hera for the purpose of fabricating 
his imposture corresponds very nearly with the 
time in which Boniface, bishop of Rome, by virtue 
of a grant from the tyrant Phocas, first assumed 
the title of Universal Pastor, and began fo lay 
claim to that spiritual supremacy over the cluirch 
of Chiist, which has ever since been arrogated to 
themselves by hi"=^ successors. " And from this 


time," says Prideaux, " both he (the bishop of 
Rome) and Mohammed having conspired to found 
themselves an empire in imposture, their followers 
have been ever since endeavouring by the same 
methods, that is, those of fire and sword, to pro- 
pagate it among mankind ; so that Antichrist seems 
at this time to have set both his feet upon Christen- 
dom together ; the one in the East, the other in 
the West, and how much each hath trampled upon 
the church of Christ, all succeeding ages have 
abundantly experienced." The agreement of dates 
here adverted to may be vvorth noticing ; both 
events having occurred within the first six or eight 
years of the seventh century ; but we have as yet 
met with no evidence to convince us of the pro- 
priety of applying the epithet Antichrist to Mo- 
hammed. It is, however, the opinion of many 
Protestant expositors of prophecy, that this appel- 
lation is properly attributable to that system of 
ecclesiastical domination so long exercised by the 
Romish hierarchy, and the continuance of which, 
it is maintained, is limited by the prophetic term 
of 1260 years. If, therefore, this predicted period, 
assigned to the reign of the Roman Antichrist, be 
dated from near the commencement of the seventh 
century, we are not very far from the era of great 
moral changes in the state of the world; and 
there are reasons to be adduced in a subsequent 
part of this work, which lead us to believe, that 
the career of Mohammedanism runs parallel to 
that of Popery, and that, taking their rise from 
nearly a common era, they are destined also to 
ftj^nchn^nisc in their falL 



The Prophet announces his Mission among his kindred qf the Kmeisk 
— Meets with a harsk repulse— Begins to declare it in public — View 
of kis fundament il Doctrines — His pretensions respecting the Ko- 
ran. — Tl/e disdainful Rejection of his Message by his fellow-citizens 
—His consequent Denunciations against them. 

The mission of Mohammed had hitherto been 
conducted in private. The proselytes he had thus 
far gained had been won over from among the 
circle of his immediate friends and connexions. 
The time had now come, he affirmed, when the 
Lord commanded him to make his message pub- 
licly known, beginning with his kindred of the 
tribe of Koreish. " O thou covered, arise and 
preach, and magnify thy liord."* " And admonish 
thy more near relations."! To this end he directed to prepare a generous entertainment, and in- 
vite to it the sons and descendants of Abdol Mo- 
talleb, where, when they were all convened, he 
would formally divulge to them the solemn fact of 
his apostolic commission. Some disturbance, oc- 
casioned by Abu Laheb, caused the company to 
break up before lie had an opportunity of effecting 
his purpose, which induced him to give them a se- 
cond invitation on the ensuing day. About forty 
of them accordingly assembled around his board, 
^hen the prophet arose, and thus addressed his 

* Koran, eh. Ixx.y t Ch. zxtL 


•Yondering guests : — " I know no man in the whole 
peninsula of the Arabs who can propose any thing 
more excellent to his relations than what I now do 
to you ; 1 offer you happiness both in this life and 
in that which is to come ; God Almighty hath com- 
manded me to call you unto him ; who therefore 
among you will be my vizier (assistant), and will 
become my brother and vicegerent?" General 
astonishment kept the assembly silent ; none of- 
fered to accept the proffered office till the fiery Ali 
burst forth and declared that he would be the 
brother and assistant of the prophet. " I," said 
he, " O prophet of God, will be thy vizier ; I my- 
self will beat out the teeth, pull out the eyes, rip 
open the bellies, and cut off the legs, of all those 
who shall dare to oppose thee." The prophet 
caught the young proselyte in his arms, exclaim- 
ing, *' This is my brother, my deputy, my succes- 
sor ; show yourselves obedient unto him." At 
this apparently extravagant command, the whole 
company burst into laughter, telling Abu Taleb 
that he must now pay obedience and submission to 
his own son ! ^A^wiJrds jwei^e jmilt^^^^^^^^ 
t).egan to give, way to indigjoiation^. the sarious^ pre- 
Jtensions of the prophet were seriously resented, 
arid in the issue the assembly broke up in confu- 
eion, affording the ardent apostle but slender pros- 
pects of. success among his kinsmen. 

Undeterred by tlie failure of his first public at- 
tempt, Mohammed began to preach still more 
openly before the people of Mecca. He an- 
nounced to them that he was commissioned bv the 


Almighty to be his prophet on the earth ; to assen 
the unity of the Divino Being ; to denounce the 
worship of images ; to recall the people to the 
true and only religion ; to bear the tidings of para- 
dise to the believing ; and to threaten the deaf and 
unbelieving vrith the terrible vengeance of the 
Lord. His main doctrine, and that which consti- 
tutes the distinguishing character of the Koran is, 
jhat there is but one God; that he only is to be 
worshipped ; and that all idolatry is a foul abomi- 
nation, to be utterly abolished. The 112th ch. of 
the Koran, entitled " The Declaration of Grod's 
Unity," is held in the most profound veneration by 
the Mohammedans, and declared, by a tradition of 
the prophet, to be equal in value to a third part of 
the whole Koran. It is said to have been re- 
vealed in answer to the Koreish, who inquired of 
the apostle concerning the distinguishing attributes 
of the God whom he invited them to worship. It 
consists of a single sentence. " In the name of 
the most merciful God. Say, God is one God ; 
the eternal God ; he begetteth not, neither is he 
begotten : and there Is not any one like unto him.*^ 
In the incessant repetition of this doctrine in the 
pages of the Koran, the author is aiming not only 
at the grosser errors of polytheism and idolatry, 
then common among the Eastern nations, but is 
levelling a blow also at the fundamental tenet of 
Christianity, that Jesus Christ is the son of God, 
" the only begotten of the Father." Like otherg 
in other ages, Mohammed could conceive of no 
mode of understanding the doctrine of the filia- 


tion of Christ, as held by Christians, which did 
not directly militate with the truth of the essential 
unify of the Most High ; and in his view the first- 
born of absurdities was, to affirm in the same 
breath that Christ was the son of God, and yet 
coequal and coeternal with the Father. The New 
Testament declarations, therefore, respecting the 
person and character of the Messiah find no mercy 
at the hands of the author of the Koran, who 
either had not the candour or the capacity to dis- 
criminate beween the doctrine of the Trinity and 
that of Tritheism. " O ye who have received the 
Scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your re- 
ligion, neither say of God any other than the 
truth." — i. e. either by rejecting Jesus as the Jews 
do, or by raising him to an equality with God as 
do the Christians. " Verily, Christ Jesus, the son 
of Mary, is the apostle of God, and his word, 
which he conveyed into Mary, and a spirit pro- 
ceeding from him. Believe, therefore, in God and 
his apostles, and say not there are three Gods ; 
forbear this ; it will be better for you. God is 
but one God. Far be it from him that he should 
have a son ! Unto him belongeth whatsoever is in 
heaven and on earth ; and he is sufficient unto 
himself"* " They are certainly infidels who say, 
Verily, God is Christ the son of Mary. Whoever 
shall give a companion unto God, God shall ex- 
clude him from paradise, and his habitation shall 
be hell-fire. They are certainly infidels who say 
Ood is the third of three : foi there is no God be 

• Koran, ch. iv 


sides one God. Christ, the son of Mary, is ho 
more than an apostle ; and his mother was a 
woman of veracity : they both ate food."* " There 
is no God but. he : the curse be on those whom 
they associate with him in his worship."! 

With this fundamental article of the Moslem 
creed, Mohammed connected that of his being, 
since Moses and Jesus, the only true prophet of 
God. " We gave unto the children of Israel the 
book of the law, and wisdom, and prophecy ; and we 
fed them with good things, and preferred them above 
all nations : and we gave them plain ordinances 
concerning the business of religion. Afterward 
we appointed thee, O Mohammed, to promulgate 
a law concerning the business of religion : where- 
fore follow the same, and follow not the desires of 
those who are ignorant."^ JThe object of his mis^ 
sion, he affirmed., was not so much to deliver to the 
wx)rld ^n^jentirely new scheme of religion, as to 
restoje and replant the only true and ancient faith 
professed by the patriarchs and prophets, from 
Adam down to Christ. " Thus have we revealed 
unto thee an Arabic Koran, that thou mayest warn 
tiie metropolis of Mecca, and the Arabs who dwell 
1 ound about it. He hath ordained you the religion 
which he commanded Noah, and which we have 
levealed unto thee, O Mohammed, and which we 
commanded Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus ; say- 
ing. Observe this religion, and be not divided there- 
m. Wherefore, invite them to receive the sure 
faith, and be urgent with them as thou hast been 

* Roran, ch v. t Ch. ix. t Ch. xIy. 


commanded." This revival and re-establishmem 
of the ancient faith, he taught, was to be effected by 
purging it of the idolatrous notions of the Arabs, 
and of the corruptions of the Jews and Christians. 
For while he admits the fact that the books of the 
Old and New Testaments were originally written by 
inspiration, he at the same time maintains, that they 
have been since so shamefully corrupted by their 
respective disciples, that the present copies of both 
are utterly unworthy of credit ; and therefore, he 
seldom quotes them in the Koran according to the 
received text. From the following extracts, the 
reader will perceive how unsparingly the restorer 
of the primitive faith deals forth his rebukes upon 
those who had wilfully adulterated and disfigured 
it. " O ye who have received the Scriptures, why 
do ye clothe truth with vanity, and knowingly hide 

the truth? And there are certainly some of 

them who read the Scriptures perversely, that ye 
may think what they read to be really in the Scrip 
tures, yet it is not in the Scriptures; and they say 
this is from God ; but it is not from God ; and they 
speak that which is false concerning God, against 
their own knowledge."* " Wherefore, because 
they have broken their covenant, wef have cursed 
them, and hardened their hearts ; they dislocate 
the words of the Pentateuch from their places, and 
have forgotten part of what they were admonished ; 

* Koran, ch. iii. 

t The reader will notice that notwithstanding Mohammed's strenuous 
assertion of God's absolute unity, and his execrations of those who as- 
cribe 10 him '' associates," yet when he introduces him speaking in the 
Koran it is usually in the plural number. 


and wilt tliou not cease to discover the deceitftil 
practices among tliem, except a few of them?" 
" O ye Avho have received the Scriptures, now is 
our apostle come unto you, to make manifest unto 
you many things which ye have concealed in the 

In the execution of his high behest, he declared 
himself appointed to promulge a new^ revelation 
in successive portions, tlie aggregate of which was 
to constitute the Bible of his followers. The ori- 
ginal or archetype of the Koran,! he taught, was 
laid up from everlasting in the archives of Heaven, 
being written on what he termed the preserved ta- 
ble^ near to the throne of God, from which the series 
of chapters communicated by Gabriel were a tran- 
script. This pretended gradual mode of revelation 
was certainly a master stroke of i)olicy in the im- 
postor. " The unbelievers say, unless the Koran 
be sent down to him entire at once, we will not be- 
lieve. But in this manner have we revealed it that 
we might confirm thy heait thereby, and we have 
dictated it gradually by distinct parcels. "J Had 
tlie whole volume been published at once, so that 
a rigid examination could have been instituted into 
its contents as a whole, and the different parts 
brought into comparison with each other, glaring 
inconsistencies would have been easily detected, 
and objections urged which he would probably have 
found it impossible to answer. But by pretending 
to receive his oracles in separate portions, at dif 

• Koran, cb. v, \ See Appendix C. X K^ran, ch xxr 


Terent times, according as his own exigences or 
those of his followers required, he had a ready way 
of silencing all cavils, and extricating himself with 
credit from every difficulty, as nothing forbade the 
message or mandate of to-day being modified or 
abrogated by that of to-morrow. In this manner, 
twenty -three years elapsed before the whole chain 
of revelations was completed, though the prophet 
informed his disciples that he had the consolation of 
seeing the entire Koran, bound in silk^^d^orned 
with gold and gems^ PariiHise, once aj^r, till, in 
thela&t SarloJ^S Tife;He was favoured witlTthe 
vision, twice. A part of tne^^pxnriOus oracles were 
published at Mecca before his flight, the remainder 
at Medina after it. The particular mode of publica- 
tion is said to have been this : When a new chap- 
ter had been communicated to the prophet, and was 
about to be promulgated for the benefit of the 
world, he first dictated it to his secretary, and then 
delivered the written paper to his followers, to be 
read and repeated till it had become firmly im- 
printed upon their memories, when the paper was 
again returned to the prophet, who carefully depo- 
sited it in a chest, called by him " the chest of 
his apostleship." The hint of this sacred coffei 
was doubtless taken from the Ark of the Covenant, 
the holy chest of the Jewish tabernacle, in which 
the authentic copy of the law was laid up and pre- 
served. This chest Mohammed left at his death 
in the care of one of his wives ; and from its con- 
tents the volume of the Koran was afterward com- 
piled. The first collection and arrangement of 


these prophetic relics, more precious than the scat- 
tered leaves of all the Sybils, was made by Abu- 
beker, but the whole was afterward revised and 
new-modelled by Dtfinian, who left the entire vo- 
lume of tlie Koran in the order in which we now 
have it. 

Mohammed's first reception by the mass of his 
fellow-citizens of Mecca was scarcely more hope- 
ful than it had been amonjr his kindred. His al- 
leged divine messages, especially when they as- 
sumed a t(me of repreliension and reproach towards 
his countrymen, for their idolatry, obstinacy, and 
perverseness, were met with indignant scoffs and 
railings. Some called him a magician and a sor- 
cerer ; otTiers, a "silly "retailer of old fables; and 
athers directly charged, hirnw^^^ being a liar afid~ 
-s^an impostor. The reader will be amused and in- 
terested by the insertion of a few out of the scores 
of allusions, with which the Koran abounds, to the 
profane and contemptuous treatment shown to- 
wards the prophet at this time. " The Meccans 
say, O thou, to^ whom the admonition (the Koran) 
hath been sent down, thou art certainly possessed 
with a devil : wouldst not thou have come unto 
us with an attendance of angels if thou hadst 
spoken the truth ? Answer, We send not down the 
angels but on a just occasion."* *' Verily I have 
permitted these Mecr'a;»>! and their fathers to live 
in prosperity, till the truth should come unto them, 
and a manife^^^t apostle : but now the truth is comf 

tiilldO. Ch. TL 


unto them, they say, this is a piece of sorcery ; 


tlua Korair ijcrgS^s^ut dpw unto some great man 
iiLxither pjf th^ two cities, we would have received 
■AXJlt " The time of giving up their account draweth 
nigh unto the people of Mecca. No admonition 
Cometh unto them from their Lord, but when they 
hear it they turn it to sport. They say. The Ko- 
ran is a confused heap of dreams : nay, he hath 
fopge4-iCt " Andjhe unbeUevers sayj^^th^ Koran 
is no other tharTalbrgery which he hath contrived ; 
and other people have assisted him therein: but 
they utter an unjust thing and a falsehood. They 
also say. These are fables of the ancients, which he 
hath caused to be written down ; and they are dic- 
tated unto him morning and evening. Say, He 
hath revealed it who knoweth the secrets in hea- 
ven and earth. Aijd^ey^ay, What kind of apostle 
i§^ this ? He eateth food, anff walketh in the streets 
as we do. The ungodly also say. Ye follow no 
other than a man who is distracted.''^ " When our 
evident signs are rehearsed anto them, the unbe- 
hevers say of the truth. This is a manifest piece of 
sorcery. Will they say, Mohammed hath forged 
it? Answer, If I have forged it, verily, ye will 
not obtain for me any favour from God : he well 
knoweth the injurious language which ye utter 

concerning it. 1 follow no other than what is 

revealed unto me ; neither am I any more than ^ 
public Warner."^ 

* Koran, ch. xliii. t Ch. xxl t Ch. xxt. $ Ch. xlii 

47-5 F 


But these stiff-necked idolaters were plainly 
taught that they were not to promise themselves 
impunity in thus pouring contempt upon the testi- 
mony of an authorized legate of heaven. The 
Most High himself was brought in confirming by 
an oath the truth of his prophet's mission. " I 
swear by that which ye see and that which ye see 
not, that this is the discourse of an honourable 
apostle, and not the discourse of a poet: how 
little do ye believe ! Neither is it the discourse of 
a soothsayer : how little are ye admonished ! It 
is a revelation from the Lord of all creatures. If 
Mohammed had forged any part of these dis- 
courses concerning us, verily we had taken him 
by the right hand, and had cut in sunder the vein 
of his heart ; neither would we have withheld any 
of you from chastising him. And verily, this book 
is an admonition unto the pious ; and we well 
know there are some of you who charge the same 
with imposture : but it shall surely be an occa- 
sion of grievous sighing unto the infidels ; for it is 
the truth of a certainty."* " Because he is an 
adversary to our signs, I will afflict him with 
grievoMS calamities ; for he hath devised contume- 
lious expressions to ridicule the Koran. May 
he be cursed ! I will cast him to be burned in 
hell. And what shall make thee understand what 
hell is? It leaveth not any thing unconsumed, 
neither doth it suffer any thing to escape; it 
searcheth men's flesh ; over the same are nineteen 

* Koran ch. Ixxz 


angels appointed. We have appointed none but 
angels to preside over hell-fire."* '* Verily we 
have prepared for the unbelievers chains, and col- 
lars, and burning fire."t " Verily those who dis- 
believe our signs we will surely cast out to be 
broiled in hell-fire : and when their skins shall be 
well burned, we will give them other skins in ex- 
change, that they may taste the sharper torment. "J 

* Koran, ch. Ixxiv. t Ch. xi. I Ch, tv. 



Mohammed not discouraged by Opposition — The burden of his 
ing — Description of Paradise — Error to suppose Women excluded — 
Of Hell—Gains some Followers — Challenged to work a Miracle — 
His Reply— The Koran the grand Miracle of his Religion— Judtcuu 
Obduracy charged upon the Unbelievers. 

But 440 -jrepulsesj JiowfiJ^er rude qr,.xfibfilUous, 
operated to detexihei)rophet from prosecuting his 
j.postolic ministry. No injuries or insults, how- 
ever gallmg; availed to quench that glow of phi- 
laafcopy, that earnest solicitude for the salvation 
of his countryHien, for whi<;h his divine revela- 
tions plainly give him, credit. " Peradventure, thou 
afflictest thyself unto death lest the Meccans be- 
come not true believers."* "Verily, God will 
cause to err whom he pleaseth, and will direct 
whom he pleaseth. Let not thy soul, therefore be 
spent in sighs for their sakes, on account of their 
obstinacy ; for God well knoweth that which they 
do."t A.nd it must be acknowledged, that his firm- 
ness at this stage of his career, in the midst of 
bitter opposition, opprobrious taunts, and relentless 
^dicule, has very much the air of having been 
Prompted by a sincere though enthusiastic belief 
n the truth and rectitude of his cause. The 
scope of several chapters of the Koran promul- 
gated at this time leads to the same impression. 

• Koran ch. xxvl. t Ch. xxxt. 


They are strikingly hortatory and impassioned in 
their character, inculcating the being and perfec- 
tions of the one only God, the vanity of idols, a 
future resurrection, a day of judgment, a state of 
rewards and punishments, and the necessity of 
works of righteousness. The marks of impos- 
ture are much more discernible upon the pages 
subsequently revealed, in which the prophet had 
private ends of a sinister nature to accomplish. 
But he contented not himself with merely preach- 
ing in public assemblies, and proclaiming in streets 
and market-places the solemn and awakening 
burden of his message. With a zeal worthy of a 
better cause, and with a perseverance and patience 
that might serve as a model to a Christian mis- 
sionary, he backed his public appeals by private 
addresses, and put in requisition all the arts of per- 
suasion and proselytism, in which he was so emi- 
nently skilled. He applied himself in the most 
insinuating manner to all classes of people ; he 
was complaisant and liberal to the poor, cultivating 
their acquaintance and relieving their wants ; the 
rich and noble he soothed by flattery ; and bore 
aflronts without seeking to avenge them. The 
efl^ect of this politic management was greatly en 
hanced by the peculiar character of those inspired 
promises and threatenings which he brought to 
enforce his message. 

His promises were chiefly of a blissful paradise 
in another life ; and these he studiously aimed to 
set forth in colours best calculiited to work upon 
the fancies of a sensitive and sensual race, whose 


minds, in consequence of their national habits, 
were httle susceptible of the images of abstract 
enjoyment. The notions of a purely intellectual 
or spiritual happiness pertain to a more cultivated 
people. The scorching heat of those tropical re- 
gions, the aridness of the soil, and the consequent 
lack of a verdant vegetation, made it natural to the 
Arabs, and other oriental nations, to conceive of 
the most exquisite scenes of pleasure under the 
images of rivers of water, cooling drinks, flowery 
gardens, shaded bowers, and luscious fruits. The 
magnificence also of many of the Eastern build- 
ings, their temples and palaces, with the sumptu- 
ousness of their dresses, the pomp of processions, 
and the splendour of courts, would all tend to 
mingle in their ideas of the highest state of en- 
joyment an abundance of gold and silver and pre- 
cious stones — treasures for which the East has 
been famed from time immemorial. Mohammed 
was well aware that a plenitude of these visible 
and palpable attractions, to say nothing of grosser 
sources of pleasure, was an indispensable requi- 
site in a heaven suited to the temperament of his 
countrymen. Accordingly, he assures the faith- 
ful, that they shall enter into delectable gardens, 
where the rivers flow, some with water, some with 
wine, 6ome with milk, and some with clarified 
honey; that there will be fountains and purling 
streams whose pebbles are rubies and emeralds, 
their earth of camphire, their beds of musk, and 
their sides of saffron. In feasting upon the ban- 
quets of paradise, at one time the most delicious* 


fruits shall hang dependent from the branches of 
the trees under which their couches are spread, so 
that they have only to reach forth their hands to 
pluck them ; again, they shall be served in dishes 
of gold filled with every variety of grateful food, 
and supplied with wine of ambrosial flavour. But 
the prophet's own glowing pictures of the joys of 
his promised paradise will do more justice to the 
subject. " They shall repose on couches, the lin- 
ings whereof shall be of thick silk interwoven with 
gold ; and the fruit of the two gardens shall be 
near at hand to gather. Therein shall receive 
them beauteous damsels, refraining their eyes from 
beholding any besides their spouses, having com- 
plexions hke rubies and pearls. Besides these 
there shall be two other gardens that shall be 
dressed in eternal verdure. In each of them 
shall be two fountains pouring forth plenty of 
water. In each of them shall be fruits, and palm- 
trees, and pomegranates. Therein shall be agree- 
able and beauteous damsels, having fine black 
eyes, and kept in pavilions from public view, 
whom no man shall have dishonoured before their 
predestined spouses, nor any genius." " They 
shall dwell in gardens of delight, reposing on 
couches adorned with gold and precious stones ; 
sitting opposite to one another thereon. Youths, 
which shall continue in their bloom for ever, shall 
go round about to attend them, with goblets and 
beakers, and a cup of flowing wine : their heads 
shall not ache by drinking the same, neither shall 
their reason be disturbed." " Upon them shall be 


garments of fine green silk, and of brocades, and 
they shall be adorned with bracelets of silver, and 
their Lord shall give them to drink of a most pure 
liquor — a cup of wine mixed with the water of 
Zenjebil, a fountain in paradise named Salsabil." 
** But those who believe and do that which is right, 
we will bring into gardens watered by rivers, 
therein shall they remain for ever, and therein 
shall they enjoy wives free from all infirmities ; 
and we will lead them into perpetual abodes.' 
*' For those who fear their Lord will be preparea 
high apartments in paradise, over which shall be 
other apartments built ; and rivers shall run be- 
neath them." " But for the pious is prepared a 
place of bliss : gardens planted with trees, and 
vineyards, and damsels of equal age with them- 
selves, and a full cup."* 

Such is the Mohammedan paradise, rendered 
alluring by its gross, carnal, and luxurious cha- 
racter. It cannot indeed be denied that there are 
occasional intimations, in the Koran, of some kind 
of spiritual happiness to be enjoyed by the pious 
in addition to their corporeal pleasures. " Their 
prayer therein shall be. Praise be unto thee, O 
God ! and their salutation therein shall be. Peace ! 
and the end of their prayer shall be, Praise be 
unto God, the Lord of all creatures."! But it is 
beyond question, that the main ingredients in the 
anticipated happiness of the Moslem saints are of 
a sensual kind, addressed to the inferior principles 

* Koran, ch. iii. iv. xxxvi. xxxvii. xliii. xlvii. Ixxviii. tC^ » 


of our nature, and making their paradise to dif- 
fer but little from the Elysium of the heathen 

The reader of the Koran wiil meet with re- 
peated declarations subversive of the vulgar opi- 
nion, that the religion of Mohammed denies to 
women the possession of souls, and excludes 
them from all participation in the joys of paradise. 
Whatever may have been imagined or affirmed on 
this point by some of his more ignorant followers, v 
is certain that Mohammed himself thought toe 
highly of women to inculcate any such doctrine, as 
the following passages will evince : "Whoso doeth 
evil, shall be rewarded for it ; and shall not find pny 
patron or helper besides God ; but whoso doeth 
g^ood works, whether he be male or female, and is 
a true believer, they shall be admitted into para- 
dise, and shall not in the least be unjustly dealt 
with."* " The reward of these shall be paradise, 
gardens of eternal abode, which they shall enter, 
and whoever shall have acted uprightly, of their 
fathers, and their wives, and their posterity ; and 
the angels shall go in unto them by every gate, 
saying. Peace be upon you, because ye have en- 
dured with patience ; how excellent a reward is 
paradise !"t 

rf these vivid representations of the future bliss 
of the faithful were calculated to work strongly 
upon the passions of his hearers, his denunciations 
of the fearful torments reserved for unbelievers, 

* Koran, ch. iv. t Ch. xiii 


were equally well fitted to produce the same ef- 
fect. The most revolting images of bodily suf- 
fering, himger, thirst, the torture of fire, and the 
anguish of piercing cold, were summoned up by 
the preacher to alarm the workers of evil, and to 
call off the worshippers of idols from their im- 
piety. " But for the transgressors is prepared an 
evil receptacle, namely hell : they shall be cast 
into the same to be burned, and a wretched couch 
shall it be." "And they who believe not shall 
have garments of fire fitted unto them : boiling 
water shall be poured on their heads; their bow- 
els shall be dissolved thereby, and also their skins ; 
and they shall be beaten with maces of iron. So 
often as they shall endeavour to get out of hell, 
because of the anguish of their torments, they 
shall be dragged back into the same ; and their 
tormentors shall say imto them. Taste ye the pain 
of burning."* " It shall be said unto them. Go 
ye into the punishment which ye denied as a false- 
hood : go ye into the shadow of the smoke of 
hell, which shall ascend in three columns, and 
shall not shade you from the heat, neither shall it 
be of service against the flame ; but it shall cast 
forth sparks as big as towers, resembling yellow 
camels in colour."! " Hath the news of the 
overwhelming day of judgment reached theel 
The countenances of some, on that day, shall be 
cast down ; labouring and toiling ; they shall be 
«ast into a scorching fire to be broiled : they shaD 

♦ Koran, ch. xrii. t Ch. Ixiriil 


6*5 giYen to drink of a boiling fountain : they shall 
hive no food but of diy thorns and thistles ; 
which shall not fatten neither shall they satisfy 
hunger." "Is this a better entertainment, or the 
tree of Al Zaccum ? How different is the tree Al 
Zaecum from the abode of Eden ! We have 
planted it for the torment of the wicked. It is a 
tree which issueth from the bottom of hell : the 
fruit thereof resembleth the heads of devils ; and 
the damned shall eat of the same, and shall fill 
their bellies therewith ; and there shall be given 
them thereon a mixture of filthy and boiling water 
to drink : afterward shall they return into hell."* 

Such was the burden of his exhortations, while 
he warned the people of the danger of unbelief, 
and urged them by his eloquence to avoid eter- 
nal damnation by putting faith in the apostle of 
God. In addition to these powerful motives, 
drawn from another world, he was lavish in the 
menaces of fearful punishments in this life also, if 
they hearkened not to his voice. For this pur- 
pose, he set before them the calamities which had 
overtaken those who, in former times, had refused 
to listen to the prophets sent among them. " Do 
they not consider how many generations we have 
destroyed before them? Other apostles have 
been laughed to scorn before thee, but the judg- 
ments which they made a jest of encompassed 
those who laughed them to scorn. Say, Go 
through the earth, and behold what has been the 

♦Koran ch xxxrii. 


end of those who accused our prophets ol' impos- 
ture."* "We have already sent messages unto 
sundry nations before thee, and we afflicted them 
with trouble and adversity, that they might humble 
themselves : yet when the affliction which we 
sent came upon them, they did not humble them- 
selves ; but their hearts became hardened, and 
Satan caused them to find charms in rebellion. 
And when they had forgotten that concerning 
which they had been admonished, we suddenly 
laid hold on them, and behold they were seized 
with despair ; and the utmost part of the people 
which had acted wickedly was cut off: praise be 
unto God, the Lord of all creatures !"t He cited 
the case of the inhabitants of the old world, who 
perished in the deluge for not giving heed to the 
preaching of Noah ; of Sodom, overwhelmed by 
fire for not receiving the admonition of Lot ; and 
of the Egyptians, who were buried in the Red 
Sea for despising Moses. To give still greater 
effect to his warnings, and ingratiate himself into 
the favour, as well as to awaken the fears, of his 
auditors, he took repeated occasions to allege his 
entire disinterestedness in the work in which he 
was engaged. He preached because he was com- 
manded to preach, and not because he intended 
covertly to make gain of his hearers. He there- 
fore boldly takes them to witness that he de- 
manded no compensation for his services. He 
looked to a higher sourer ior reward. " But we 

♦Koran ch \i. tCh. ▼!. 

LIF*. Of M0HAMMlcr> 77 

have brought them their admonition ; and they 
turn aside from their admonition. Dost thou ask 
of them any maintenance for thy preaching 1 since 
the maintenance of thy Lord is better ; for he U 
the most bounteous provider."* " We have sent 
thee to be no other than a bearer of good tidings, 
and a denouncer of threats. Say, I ask not of 
you any reward for this my preaching, besides the 
conversion of him who shall desire to take the 
way unto his Lord."t As the prophet therefore 
disclaimed all sinister views in the execution of 
his office, as he expressly renounced the expect- 
ancy of any earthly advantage whatever, so he 
was commanded to divest his mind of all undue 
anxiety as to the result of his labours of love. 
*' O apostle, let not them grieve thee who hasten 
to infidelity." " Whoso is wilfully blind, the con- 
sequence will be to himself. We have not ap- 
pointed thee a keeper over them : neither art thou 
a guardian over them." " And be not thou grieved 
on account of the unbelievers, neither be thou 
troubled for that which they subtly devise."J 

It is not therefore to be wondered at that the 
rousing appeals of the prophet should have taken 
effect ; that one after another should have listened 
— pondered — wavered — and yielded — especially 
as the gravity and sanctity of his deportment seem, 
Hi this time, to have corresponded with the solemn 
strain of his expostulations. Such accordingly 
vas the fact. The number of his followers gra- 

* Koran, ch xxiii / Ch. xlii. X Ch. xn. 


dually increased, so that in five years from the 
commencement of his mission, his party, including 
himself, amounted to forty. 

That which operated more than any thing else 
to disconcert the impostor was the demand re- 
peatedly made upon him to prove the truth of his 
mission by w^orking a miracle. " Moses and Je- 
sus," said his hearers, " and the rest of the pro- 
phets, according to thine own doctrine, wrought 
miracles to prove themselves sent of God. Now 
if thou be a prophet, and greater than any that 
were before thee, as thou boastest, let us see a 
miracle from thee also. Do thou make the dead 
to rise, the dumb to speak, the deaf to hear ; or 
else cause fountains to spring out of the earth, and 
make this place a garden adorned with vines and 
palm trees, and watered with rivers running 
through it in divers channels ; or do thou make 
thee a house of gold beautified with jewels and 
costly furniture ; or let us see the book which 
thou allegest to have come down from heaven, or 
the angel which thou sayest brings it unto thee, 
and we will believe." This natural and not un- 
reasonable demand, he had, as we learn from the 
Koran, several ways of evading. At one time, he 
tells them he is only a man sent to preach to them 
the rewards of paradise and the punishments of 
hell. " The infidels say, unless a sign be sent 
unto him from his Lord, we will not believe. 
Thou art commissioned to be a preacher only, and 
not a worker of miracles."* "Answer, Signs are 

♦Koran, ch.xlii 


m the power of God alone ; and I am no more 
than a public preacher. Is it not sufficient for 
them that we have sent down unto thee the book 
of the Koran, to be read unto them ?"* " We 
sent not our messengers otherwise than bearing 
good tidings and denouncing threats. Say, I say 
not unto you, The treasures of God are in my 
power : neither do 1 say, I know the secrets of 
God : neither do I say unto you. Verily I am an 
angel : I follow only that which is revealed unto 
me."t At another, that their predecessors had 
despised the miracles of the former prophets, and 
for this reason God would work no more among 
them. Again, that those whom God had ordained 
to believe, should believe without miracles, while 
thehaplessnon-elect, towhom he had not decreed 
the gift of faith, would not believe though ever 
so many miracles were wrought before them. 
" And though we had sent down angels unto them, 
and the dead had spoken unto them, they w(mld 
not have believed, unless God had so pleased."| 
" If their aversion to thy admonitions be grievous 
unto thee, if thou canst seek a den whereby thou 
mayest penetrate into the inward parts of the earth, 
or a ladder by which thou mayest ascend into 
heaven, that thou mayest show them a sign, do so, 
but thy search will be fruitless ; for if God pleased 
he would bring them all to the true direction."^ 
At a later period, when he was at Medina at the 
Head of an army, he had a more summary way of 

* Koran. ch.xiU. tciLTi. t Ibid. ^Ibid. 


solving all difficulties arising from this source, for 
his doctrine then was, that God had formerly sent 
Moses and Jesus with the power of working mira- 
cles, and yet men would not believe, and there- 
fore he had now sent him, a prophet of another 
order, commissioned to enforce belief by the power 
of the sword. The sword accordingly was to be 
the true seal of his apostleship, and the remark 
^yi the historian is equally just and striking, that 
" Mohammed, with the sword in one hand and the 
Koran in the other, erected his throne on the ruins 
of Christianity and of Rome."* 

By some of the more credulous of the prophet's 
followers, there are, it is true, several miracles at- 
tributed to him ; as that he clave the moon asun- 
der ; that trees went forth to meet him ; that 
water flowed from between his fingers ; that the 
stones saluted him ; that a beam groaned at him ; 
that a camel complained to him ; and that a shoul- 
der of mutton informed him of its being poisoned, 
together with several others. But these miracles 
were never alleged by Mohammed himself, nor are 
they maintained by any respectable Moslem wri- 
ters. The only miracle claimed either by him or 
his intelligent votaries is the Koran, the composi- 
tion of which is the grand miracle of their reli- 
gion. On this point the reader will perceive that 
the prophet's assumptions in the following pas- 
sages are high-toned indeed. " If ye be in doubt 
concerning that revelation which we have seni 

* Gibbon 


dovn unto our servant, produce a chapter like 
untc it, and call upon your witnesses, besides God, 
if ye say the truth."* " Say, Verily, if men and 
genii were purposely assembled, that they might 
prodice a book like this Koran, they could not 
produce one like it, although the one of them as- 
sisted the other. "t " Will they say. He hath 
forge(! the Koran ? Bring therefore ten chapters 
like mto it, forged by yourselves; and call on 
whomsoever ye may to assist you."J The infatua- 
tion o^ the Meccans in rejecting this inestimable 
" admmition," stamped as it was with the evident 
unpress of the divinity, he hesitates not to ascribe 
to the effect of a fearful judicial obstinacy, such as 
the Jevish prophets frequently threaten against 
the pe^^erse nation of Israel. " If we had re- 
vealed he Koran in a foreign language, they had 
surely Stid, Unless the signs thereof be distinctly 
explaind, we will not receive the same : Answer, 
It is unt) those who believe a sure guide and a 
remedy ; but unto those who believe not, it is a 
thicknessof hearing in their ears, and it is a dark- 
ness whidi covereth them."§ " As for the unbe- 
lievers, it will be equal unto them whether thou 
admonish hem or do not admonish them ; they 
ivrill not beieve. God hath sealed up their hearts 
and their hiaring ; a dimness covereth their sight, 
and they shall suffer a grievous punishment."|| 
" There is of them who hearkeneth unto thee 
when thou riadest the Koran ; but we have cast 

* Koran, ch. \ 

t Ch. xvii. 

4Cb.xli \ 

U Ch. ii. 




veils over their hearts, that they should not und^r 
Btand it, and a deafness in their ears ; and though 
they should see all kinds of signs, they will not 
believe therein ; and their infidelity will arriie to 
that height, that they will even come unto thee to 
dispute with thee."* Still his preaching previiled. 
He became more and more popular ; prosdytes 
flocked around hini ; and, as Gibbon remarks " he 
had the satisfaction of beholding the incresse of 
his infant congregation of Unitarians, who revered 
him as a prophet, and to whom he seasonably dis- 
pensed tne spiritual nourishment of the Korin."t 

• Koran, ch. TL t Dec. and Fall, ch. I 



T/-» Iff^tjrA Kjrcrperated and alarmed by Mohammed's growing sm^ 
c^ d ,*^»n<7to'» persecution — Some of his followers seek safety in 
Jlifht - NkM' 'c-^'-^erts —The Koreish form a League against him— 
Aim Tuleb end Cudijah die— He makes a temporary Retreat from 
Mefci, — R»!t-itnj rid preaches with increased zeal — Some (f ths 
Pilgrims Jrom Medina converted. 

^^JiE zeaLQLdie^W~o£het m,4)xacl^ his doc- 
trines, together with the visible increase of his 
foUovers, at lehgth alarmed the fears of the head 
^paeii of the tribe of Koreish; and had it not been 
for tliB powerful protectioa of his uncle, Moham- 
med vould doubtless at this time have fallen a 
victim to the malice of his opponents. The chief 
men of the tribe warmly solicited Abu Taleb to 
abandon his riepheWji; remonstrating against the 
{perilous innovations he was making in the religioo 
of their hthers, and threatening him with an open 
rupture h case he did not prevail upon him to 
4^ Their entreaties had so much weight with 
Ahu Talel, that he earnestly dissuaded his rela- 
tive from prosecuting his attempted reformation 
any farther representing to him in strong terms 
the danger lie would incur both for himself and his 
friends by persisting in his present course. But 
the ardent apostle, far from being intimidated by^ 
fXhe prospect (f opposition, frankly assured his 
1 uncle, •' That f they should set the sun against 
V^him on his right hand, and the moon on his lefk 

\ 0:t l>'^ 


vet he would noi relinquish his enterprise." Abu 
Taleb, seeing him thus determined, used no far- 
ther arguments to divert him, but promised to 
stand by him against all his enemies ; a promise 
which he faithfully kept till he died, though there 
s no clear evidence that he ever became a con- 
vert to the new religion. 

The Koreish, finding that they could prevail 
neither by fair words nor by menaces, had re- 
course to violence. T hey b _egan to persficiite his 
followe rs j^nd to suchj..iength did they proceed 
injliei^jnju^ it was no longer 

,safc^ rlthe m to continue at Mecca. Mohammed 
therefore gave leave to such of them as liadnot 
frjjeiids to p^rotecflEem, to seek refuge elsewhere. 
/\rrrQnll^V Mlif^P ^ thenv among whom was 
J^I ohammed^s da ughter and her husband, fled into 
Ethiopia. These "were afterward followed by 
'severir others, who withdrew in successive com- 
panies, till their number amounted to eighty-three 
men, and eighteen women, with theii children. 
These refugees were kindly entertained by the 
king of Ethiopia, who peremptorily refused to 
deliver them to the emissaries of the Xoreish sent 
to demand them. To these voluntay exiles he 
prophet perhaps alludes in the folloving passage : 
" As for those who have fled frorr their country 
for the sake of God, after they hat been unjustly 
persecuted, we will surely provide them an excel- 
lent habitation in this world, but he reward of the 
next life shall be greater, if the^ knew it." * 

* Koran, ch. xvl. 


In the sixth year of his mission, he had the 
pleasure of seeing his party strengthened by the 
conversion of his uncle Hamza, a man of distin- 
guished valour, and of Omar, a person of equal 
note in Mecca, who had formerly made himself 
conspicuous by his virulent opposition to the pro- 
phet and his claims. This new accession to the 
rising sect exasperated the Koreish afresh, and in- 
cited them to measures of still more active perse- 
cution against the proselytes. But as persecution 
usually advances the cause which it labours to 
destroy, so in the present case Islamism made 
more rapid progress than ever^ till the Koreish, 
^.l^addened with ^ a solemn league 

or cp.yenant against the Hashemites, and especially 
^e family of the Mbtalleb, many of whom upheld 
the, ijnpostor, engaging to contract no . marriages 
with them, jnpr to hold any farther connexion or 
..commerce of any kind ; and, to give it the greater 
sanction, the compact was reduced to writing and 
(aid up in the Caaba. Upon this the tribe became 
divided into two factions ; the family of llashem, 
except one of Mohammed's uncles, putting them- 
selves under Abu Taleb as their head, and the 
other party rangmg themselves under the standard 
of A.bu Sophyan. This league, however, was of 
no avail during the lifetime of Abu Taleb. The 
power of the uncle, who presided in the govern- 
ment of Mecca, defended the nephew against 
the designs of his enemies. At length, about the 
close of the seventh year of the mission, Abu 
Taleb died ; and, a few days after his death, Mo- 


hammed was left a widower, bv the decease of 
Cadijah, whose memory has been canonized by 
the snymg of the prophet ; " That among men 
there had been many perfect, but of women, four 
only had attained to perfection, viz. Cadijah, his 
wife ; Fatima, his daue:hter ; Asia, the wife of Pha- 
raoh ; and Mary (Minam), the daughter of Imran 
and sister of Moses " As to Abu Taleb, though 
the prophet ever cherished a most grateful sense 
of the kindness of his early benefiictor yet if the 
following passage from the Koran hat reference, 
as some of the commentators say, to his uncle, it 
shows that the dictates of nature in the nephew's 
breast were thoroughly brought into subjection to 
the stern precepts of his religion. " It is not 
allowed unto the prophet, nor those who are true 
believers, that taey pray for idolaters, although 
they be of kin, after it is become known unto them 
that they are inhabitants of hell." * This passage^ 
it is said by some, was revealed on account of Abu 
Taleb, who, upon his d^ath-bed, being pressed 
by his nephew to speak a word which might enable 
him to plead his cause before God, that is, to pro- 
fess Islam, absolutely refused. Mohammed, how- 
ever, told him that he would not cease to pray for 
'lim till he should be forbidden by God ; such a 
prohibition, he affirmed, was given him in the 
words here cited. Others suppose the occasion to 
have been the prophet's visiting his mother Amina's 
sepulchre, who also ^^is an infidel, soon after the 
capture of Mecca. Mere, while standing at the 

K«ran, c**. It 


(oinb of his parent, he is reported to have burst 
into tears and said, " I asked leave of God to 
visit my mother's tomb, and he panted it tie ; but 
when I asked leave to pray for her, it wls denied 
me." This twofold affliction of the prophet, in 
the loss of his uncle ynd his wife on *ne same 
year, induced him ever after to call this " The 
Year of Mourning." 

The unprotected apostle was now left com- 
pletely exposed to the attacks of his enem'es, and 
they failed not to improve their advantage. ^Ujey 
redoubled their efforts to crush the pestilent heresy, 
Vith its author and abettors, and some of his fol- 
lowers and friends, seeing the symptoms of a 
fiercer storm of persecution gathering, forsook the 
standard of their leader. In this extremity Mo-/ 
hammed perceived, that his only chance of safet^ 
was in a temporary retreat from the scene of conv 
flict. ^He accordingly withdrew to Tayef, a village\ 
situated sixty miles to the East of Mecca, where 
he had an uncle named Abbas, whose hospitality 
afforded him a seasonable shelter. Here, how- 
ever, his stay wj^shortiaad.his prophetic labours 
ji^availing. He returned to_Mecca, and boldly 
taking his stanS^iTlHe^precm of the^ Caaba, 
among the crowds of pilgrims who resorted an- 
nually to this ancient shrine, he preached the 
gospel of Islam to the multitudinous assemblies. 
New proselytes again rewarded his labours ; and, 
among the accessions now made to his party from 
these pilgrim hordes, were six of the inhabitants 
of Medina, then called Yatreb, who, on their return 


home began at once to relate to their fellow-citizeni 
the story of their conversion, and to extol, in no 
measured terms, their new religion and its apostle. 
This circumstance gave eclat to Mohammed in 
the city of Medina, and paved the way to a train 
of events which tended more than any thing else 
to promote his final success in Arabia. In the 
mean time, in order to strengthen his interest in 
Mecca, he married Ayesha, the daughter of Abu- 
beker, and shortly after Sawda, the daughter of 
Zama. By thus becoming the son-in-law of two 
of the principal men of his party he secured their 
patronage to his person and his cause. 



The Prophet pretends to have had a night-journey through the Set^fn 
Heavens — Description of the memorable Night by an Arabic writer—' 
Account of the Journey — His probable Motives in feigning such an 
extravagant Action. 

It was in the twelfth year of the pretended mis- 
sion that Mohammed was favoured, according to 
his own account, with his celebrated night-journey , / 
from Mecca to Jerusalem, and from thence to the \ 
seventh heaven, under the conduct of the angel 
Gabriel. In allusion to this the seventeenth chap- 
ter of the Koran commences thus : — " Praise be 
unto him who transported his servant by night 
from the sacred temple of Mecca to the farther 
temple of Jerusalem, the circuit of which we 
have blessed, that we might show some of our 
signs ; for God is he who heareth and seeth/* 
This idle and extravagant tale, which is not related 
in the Koran, but handed down by tradition, was 
probably devised by the impostor in order to 
raise his reputation as a saint, and to put himself 
more nearly upon a level with Moses, with whom 
God conversed, face to face, in the holy mount. 
The story, however, is devoutly believed by the 
Mussulmans, and one of their writers has given 
the following highly-w fought description of the 
memorable ni^ht in which it occurred. " In the 



darkest, most obscure, and most silent night that 
the sun ever caused by his absence, since that 
glorious planet of light was created or had its being; 
a night in which there was no crowing of cocks to 
be heard throughout the whole universe, no bark- 
ings of dogs, no bowlings, roarings, or yellings of 
wild beasts, nor watchings of nocturnal birds ; 
nay, and not only the feathered and four-footed 
creatures suspended their customary vociferations 
and motions, but likewise the waters ceased from 
their murmurings, the winds from their whistlings, 
the air from its breathings, the serpents from their 
hissings, the mountains, valleys, and caverns from 
their resounding echoes, the earth from its produc- 
tions, the tender plants from their sproutmgs, the 
grass of the field from its verdancy, the waves of 
the sea from their agitations, and their inhabitants, 
the fishes, from plying their fins. And indeed 
upon a night so wonderful it was very requisite, 
that all the creatures of the Lord's handy-work 
should cease from their usual movements, and be- 
come dumb and motionless, and lend an attentive 
ear, that they might conceive by means of their 
ears what their tongues were not capable of ex- 
pressing. Nor is any tongue able to express the 
wonders and mysteries of this night, and should 
any undertake so unequal a task, there could no- 
thing be represented but the bare shadow : since 
what happened in this miraculous night was infi- 
nitely the greatest and most stupendous event that 
ever befell any of the posterity of Adam, either 
expressed in any of the sacred writings whi<*h 


came down ft-om above, or by signs and figures. 
From the sublime altitudes of heaven the most 
glorious seraph of all those which God ever 
created or produced, the incomparable Gabriel, 
upon the latter part of the evening of that sti pen- 
dous night, took a hasty and precipitate flight, 
and descended to this lower world with an unheard- 
of and wonderful message, the which caused an 
•miversal rejoicing on earth, and filled the seven 
heavens with a more than ordinary gladness ; and, 
as the nature of the message both required and 
inspired joy, he visited the world under the most 
glorious and beautiful appearance that even imagi- 
nation itself is capable of figuring. His whiteness 
obscured that of the driven snow, and his splen- 
dour darkened the rays of the noontide sun. His 
garments were all covered with the richest flowers 
in embroidery of celestial fabric, and his many 
wings were most beautifully expanded, and all in- 
terspersed with inestimable precious stones. His 
stature was exceeding tall, and his presence 
exquisitely awful. Upon his beauteous capa- 
cious forehead he bore two lines written in cha- 
racters of dazzling light ; the uppermost consisted 
of these words, La Utah iV allah — There is no 
God but Allah ; and in the lowermost line was 
contained, Mohammed Rasoul Allah — Mohammed 
IS God's Messenger."* 

In passing from this poetical prelude, conceived 
in the true gorgeous style of oriental description, 
lo the meagre and puerile story of the journey it- 

* Motrgan's Mahometanism Explained. 


St If, we feel at on-r that the prophet's fancy suffers 
bv comparison with that of his disciple, who could 
certainly, from the above specimen, have given a 
vastly more interesting fiction of a celestial tour 
than the miserable tissue of absurdity which appears 
in the fabrication of tlie prophet. Without detail- 
ing all the particulars of this nocturnal expedition, 
in which the marvels thickened upon him till he 
had reached the utmost height of the empyrean, 
the following outline will afford the reader an idea 
of its general character. 

While the prophet was reposing in his bed, with 
his beloved Ayesha at his side, he was suddenly 
awakened by the angel Gabriel, who stood before 
him with seventy pair of expanded wings, whiter 
than snow and clearer than crystal. The angel 
informed him that he had come to conduct him to 
heaven, and directed him to mount an animal that 
stood ready at the door, and which was between 
the nature of an ass and a mule. The name of 
this beast was Alborak, signifying in the Arabic 
tongue, '* The Lightning," from his inconceivable 
swiftness. His colour was a milky white. As 
he had, however, remained inactive from the time 
of Christ to that of Mohammed — there having 
been no prophet in the interval to employ him — 
he now proved so restless and refractory, that 
Mohammed could not succeed in seating himself 
on his back till he had promised him a place in 
paradise. Pacified by this promise, he sufferp.d 
the prophet quietly to mount, and Gabriel, taking 
the bridle in his hand, conveyed him fiom Mecca 


to Jerusalem in the twinkling of eye. When he 
arrived at the latter place, the departed prophets 
and saints came forth to meet and to salute him, 
and to request an interest in his prayers when he 
came near to the throne of glory. Going out of 
the temple he found a ladder of light ready fixed 
for them, and tying Alborak to a rock, he followed 
Gabriel on the ladder till they reached the first 
heaven, where admittance was readily granted by 
the porter, when told by Gabriel that his com- 
panion was no other than Mohammed, the pro- 
phet of God. This first heaven, he tells us, was 
all of pure silver, adorned with stars hanging 
from it by chains of gold, each of them of the 
size of a mountain. Here he was met by a de- 
crepid old man, whom the prophet learned to be 
our father Adam, and who greatly rejoiced at 
having so distinguished a son. He saw also in 
this heaven innumerable angels in the shape of 
birds, beasts, and men ; but its crowning wonder 
was a gigantic cock, whose head towered up to 
the sef*ond heaven, though at the distance of five 
hundred days journey from the first ! His wings 
were large in proportion, and were decked witli 
carbuncles and pearls ; and so loud did he crow, 
whenever the morning dawned, that all creatures 
on earth, except men and fairies, heard the tre- 
mendous din. The second heaven was of pure 
gold, and contained twice as many angels as the 
former. Among these was one of such vast di- 
mensions, that the distance between his eyes was 
equal to the length of seventy thousand days 


journey. Here he met Noah, who begged thr 
favour of his prayers. Thence he proceeded to 
tlie third, where he was accosted by Abraham 
with the same request. Here he found the Angel 
of Death, with an immense table before him, on 
which he was writing the names of the human 
race as they were born, and blotting them out a© 
their allotted number of days was completed, 
when they immediately died. At his entrance into 
the fourth heaven, which was of emerald, he was 
met by Joseph, the son of Jacob. In the fifth he 
beheld his honoured predecessor, Moses. In the 
sixth, which was of carbuncle, he found John the 
Baptist. In the seventh, made of divine light in- 
stead of metals or gems, he saw Jesus Christ, 
whose superior dignity it would seem that he ac- 
knowledged by requesting an interest in his 
'^rayers, whereas in every preceding case the per- 
sonages mentioned solicited this favour of him. 
in this heaven the number of angels, which had 
been increasing through every step of his progress^ 
vastly exceeded that of all the other dc^par^ments, 
and among them was one who had seventy thou- 
sand heads, in every head seventy thousand mouths, 
in every mouth seventy thousand tongues, in every 
tongue seventy thousand voices, with which day 
and night he was incessantly employed praising 

The angel having conducted him thus far, in- 
formed him, that he was not permitted to attend 
him any farther in the capacity of guide, but that he 
must ascend the remainder of the distance to the 


throne of God alone. This he accordingly under- 
took, and finally accomplished, though with gr^at 
difficulty, his way lying through waters and snows, 
and other formidable obstacles, sufficient to daunt 
the stoutest heart. At length he reached a point 
where he heard a voice addressing him, saying, 
" O Mohammed, salute thy Creator." Mounting 
still higher, he came to a place where he beheld 
a vast extension of light of such dazzling bright- 
ness, that the powers of mortal vision were unable 
to endure it. In the midst of the effulgence was 
the throne of the Eternal ; on the right side of 
which was written in luminous Arabic characters : 
** There is no God but God, and Mohammed is 
his prophet." This inscription, he says, he found 
written on all the gates of the seven heavens 
through which he passed. Having approached 
to within two bow- shots of the Divine presence, 
he affirmed that he there behtld the Most High 
seated upon his throne, with a covering of seventy 
thousand veils before his face, from beneath which 
he stretched forth his hand and laid it upon the 
prophet, when a coldness of inconceivable intensity 
pierced, as he said, to " the very marrow of his 
back." No injury, however, ensued, and the Al- 
mighty then condescended to enter into the most 
familiar converse with his servant, unfolding to 
him a great many hidden mysteries, making him 
to understand the whole law, and instructing him 
fully in the nature of the institutions he was to 
deliver to mankind. In addition to thi« he honoured 
him with several distinctions above tht* rest of his 

§6 Life of mohammed. 

race ; us that he should be the most perfect of all 
creatures ; that at the day of judgment he should 
have the pre-eminence among the risen dead ; that 
he should be the redeemer of all that believe in 
him ; that he should have the knowledge of all 
languages ; and, lastly, that the spoils of all whom 
lie should conquer in war should belong to him 
alone. After receiving these gracious assurances, 
he retired from the presence of the Divine Majesty, 
and, returning, found the angel awaiting him at the 
place where they parted, who immediately re- 
conducted him back, in the same manner in which 
he came, to Jerusalem and Mecca. 

Such were the puerile conceptions of the pro- 
phet. Such the silly rhapsody which he palmed 
upon the credulity of his followers as the description 
of a most veritable occurrence. The story, however, 
carried on the face of it such glaring absurdity, that 
several of his party forsook him at once, and his 
whole cause came near to being utterly ruined by it. 
At length Abubeker, the man of greatest influence 
among the prophet's friends, by professing to give 
credence to the tale, at once put to shame the in- 
fidelity of the rest, and extricated his leader from 
his unhappy dilemma. He boldly vouched for the 
prophet's veracity. " If Mohammed affirms it, it 
is undeniably true, and I will stand by him. I 
believe every word of it. The Lord's elected 
cannot lie." This seasonable incident not only 
retrieved the prophet's credit, but increased it to 
»uch a degree, that it made him sure of being able 
vver after to impose any fiction he pleased upon the 


easy faith of his disciples. So that this senseless 
and paltry fable, which at first threatened to blast 
all the impostor's schemes in the bud, did in fact 
serve, by a peculiar combination of circumstances, 
materially to promote his success. Abubeker 
henceforth had the honorary title of " Faithful 
Witness" bestowed upon him. 

We learn from Sale, the English commentator 
upon the Koran, that it is still somewhat disputed 
among the Mohammedan doctors, whether their 
prophet's night-journey was really performed by 
him corporeally, or whether it was only a dream 
or a vision. Some think it was no more than a 
vision, and allege an express tradition of Moawiyah, 
one of Mohammed's successors, to that purpose. 
Others suppose, that he was carried bodily to 
Jerusalem, but no farther ; and that he thence as- 
cended to heaven in spirit only. But the received 
opinion is, that it was no vision, but that he was 
actually transported in the body to his journey's 
end; and, if any impossibility be objected, they 
deem it a sufficient answer to say, that it might 
easily have been effected by an omnipotent Being. 

It is by no means improbable that Mohammed 
had a farther design in forging this extravagant 
ale than merely to astonish his adherents by the 
relation of a miraculous adventure. The attentive 
observer of the distinguishing traits of Islamism 
will not fail to discover innumerable points of re- 
semblance between that system and the divinely- 
revealed religion of the Jews ; and it appears tc 
have been an object studiously aimed at by the 


impostor to assimilate himself as much as possible 
to Moses, and to incorporate as many peculiarities 
ot the Jewish economy into his own fabrication as 
he could without destroying the simplicity of his 
creed. This fact is in keeping with what may be 
asserted in general terms, that the descendants of 
Ishmael, under a consciousness that the cove- 
nanted blessings of Jehovah have flow^ed down in 
the line of Isaac and Jacob, have ever shown a 
disposition to imitate what they could not attain. 
More stiking proofs of this will appear in the 
sequel. We adduce the observation here as 
affording a probable clew to the motives of the 
prophet in feigning this memorable night-journey. 
Hitherto he had only imparted to his followers the 
Koran, which, like the books of Moses, may be 
termed his written law. In making this revelation 
he had professed himself merely an organ through 
whom the divine counsels were to be uttered to 
the race of men. He simply gave forth what was 
communicated to him through the medium of tlie 
angelic messenger, and that without interposing 
any comments or expositions of his own. Ac- 
cordingly, when pressed by the cavils of his adver- 
saries, his usual refuge was to affirm that the Koran 
was not his book, but God's, and that he alone 
could give a just interpretation of its meaning 
which was in some places to be understood literally, 
in others allegorically. " There is no God but 
God, the living, the self-subsisting : he hath sent 
down unto thee the book of the Koran with truth, 
confirming that which was revealec/ before it. — — 


It is he who hath sent down unto thee the book, 
wherein are some verses clear to be understood; 
thev are the foundation of the book ; and others 
are paraboUcal. But they whose hearts are per- 
veiae will follow that which is parabolical therein, 
out of lovo of schism, and a desire of the inter- 
pretation thereof; yet none knoweth the interpre- 
tation thereof except God."* But having by some 
means become acquainted with the fact, that the 
Jews, in addition to the written law dictated by 
God himself, were in possession of anotlier, called 
the oral law, said to have been given to Moses at 
the same time with the former on the holy mount ; 
and from him handed down by tradition from age 
to age; understanding, moreover, that this law was 
accounted cf equal authority with the written, 
while it had its origin solely from certain verbal 
declarations or dictates of Moses which were pre- 
served in the memories of those who conversed 
with him ; the prophet may from this have taken 
the hint of a similar mode of advancing his autho- 
rity, and of giving the weight and character of 
oracles to his private sayings. To this end it is 
not unlikely that he originated the fabulous legend 
of his nocturnal travel into the regions of the 
spheres. He was well aware, that could he once 
succeed in making it believed that he had been fa- 
voured to hold this high converse with God in the 
secret of his presence, and that he had been there 
fully instructed in the profound mysteries of hea- 
ven, he could upon this foundation erect just such 

* Koran, ch. iii. 


8L fkbric of imposture as he pleased, and in^pose it 
upon his credulous followers. Such at any rate 
was the actual result. From this time forth 
a peculiar sacredness attached to the most trivial 
sayings and the most inconsiderable actions of the 
prophet in every thing that regarded his religion. 
They were reverently noted during his lifetime, 
and devoutly collected from traditional reports aftei 
his death, and at length brought together in those 
volumes of traditions, which compose the Sonnah^ 
answering precisely to the oral law of the Jews. 
And as the Jewish Rabbins employ themselves in 
collating, digesting, and explaining their ancient 
traditions, by many of which they make the law 
of God of none effect, so also among the Moham- 
medan divines, there are those who devote them- 
selves to the business of expounding the Sonnah, 
as containing the sum of their theology, both 
speculative and practical. It was not without rea- 
son, therefore, that the impostor was extremely 
anxious to have this marvellous recital cordially 
believed, or that he should have mlroduced the 
iVTost High in the Koran confirming the truth of 
his servant's asseverations. " By the star when ii 
setteth, your companion Mohammed erreth not, nor 
is he led astray : neither doth he speak of his own 
will. It is no other than a revelation which hath 
been revealed unto him. The heart of Moham- 
med did not falsely represent that which he saw. 
Will ye therefore dispute with nim concerning that 
which he saw ?"* 

* Koran. cU. *.iii. 



An Embassy sent to the Prophet from Medina — Enters into a Leagtut 
untfi them — Sends thither a Missionary — Another Deputation sent 
to proffer him an Asylum in that City — His Enemies renew their 
Persecutions — Determines to fly to Medina — Incidents on the 
waff — Makes a Solemn Entry into the City — Apostate Christians 
nipposed to have joined in tendering him the Invitation. 

The fame of Mohammed had now extended be- 
yond the walls of his native town. While he was 
opposed, scorned, and derided at Mecca, his repu- 
tation was growing, and his doctrines secretly 
spreading at Medina. This city, anciently known 
by the name of Yatreb, and lying at the northern 
extremity of the province of Hejaz, about seventy 
miles from Mecca, had been distinguished by the 
early introduction of letters, arts, and science ; and 
its inhabitants, composed of pagan Arabs, here- 
tical Christians, and Jews, were frequently desig- 
nated as the people of the book. The two princi- 
pal tribes which now had possession of the city 
were the Karejites and the Awsites, between 
whom a hereditary feud had long subsisted, and 
the disturbances occasioned by the rivalry of these 
two tribes were enhanced by the disputes of the 
religious factions, Jewish and Christian, which dis- 
tracted all classes of citizens. It has been al- 
ready observed that several of the inhabitants, \n 
a pilgrimage to the Caaba, had been converted by 
the preaching of Mohammed, and that on their ce- 


Vurn they had not been slothful in the propagation 
of their new sentiments. That they were both 
sincere and successful disciples of the prophet may 
oe inferred from the fact, that on this year, the 
twelfth of the mission, called the accepted ytar 
twelve men came to M(icca, and took an oath of 
fidelity to Mohammed at Al Akaba, a hill on the 
north of that city. The amount of this oath was : 
" That they should renounce all idolatry ; that 
they should not steal nor commit fornication, noi 
kill their children, as the pagan Arabs used to do 
when they apprehended they should not be able to 
maintain them ; nor forge calumnies ; and that they 
should obey the prophet in every thing that was 
reasonable." When they had solemnly bound 
themselves to the conditions of the oath, Moham- 
med sent one of his disciples, named Masab Ebn 
Omair, to instruct these men fully in the principles 
and practices of the new religion. Masab's mis- 
sion was eminently successful. Among the prose- 
lytes were Osaid Ebn Hodeira, a chief man of the 
city, and Saad Ebn Moadh, prince of the tribe of 
Aws ; and scarce a house in the city but numbered 
one or more converts. If the terms may be al' 
lowed, the excitement was little short of a Mo- 
hammedan revival. 

The next year, the thirteenth of the mission, 
Masab returned to Mecca accompanied by se- 
venty-three men and two women who had pro- 
fessed Islamism, besides several v^ho were as yet 
unbelievers. The object of this deputation was 
lo proffer to the apostle an asylum or any assist 


ance in their power, as iliey had learned that, from 
the strength and malice of his adversaries, he 
stood in special need of auxiliaries. It was in 
fact a political association which was proposed to 
be entered into, " in which we may perceive," says 
Gibbon, " the first vital spark of the empire of the 
Saracens." In this ?rcret conference with the 
prophet, his kinsmen, and his disciples, vows ot 
fealty and of mutual fidelity were pledged by the 
parties. The deputies from Medina promised, in 
the name of the city, that if he should be banished, 
they would " receive him as a confederate, obey 
him as a leader, and defend him to the last extre- 
mity, like their wives and children." " But if you 
are recalled to your country." they asked, " will 
you not abandon your new allies ?" " All things," 
replied Mohammed, " are now common between 
us ; your blood is as my blood ; your ruin as my 
niin. We are bound to each other by the ties of 
honour and interest. I am your friend and the 
enemy of your foes." " But if we are killed in 
your service, what will be our reward ?" " Para- 
dise !" replied the confident apostle. This treaty 
was then ratified, and they separated, Mohammed 
having first chosen twelve out of their number, 
who were to have the same authority among them 
as the twelve apostles of Christ had among the 

Abu Sophyan succeeded Abu Taleb in the go- 
vernment of Mecca, in whom Mohammed found a 
mortal enemy to his family, his religion, and him- 
self. No sooner was he called to the head of the 


state than he determined to exterminate the apostlo 
and his new-fangled heresy. A council of the 
Koreish and their allies was called, and the death 
of the impostor decided upon. It was agreed that 
a man should be chosen out of each of the con- 
federated tribes for the execution of the project, and 
that each man should have a blow at him with his 
Bword in order to divide the guilt of the deed, and 
to baffle the vengeance of the Hashemites ; as it 
was supposed that with their inferior strength they 
would not dare, in the face of this powerful union, 
to attempt to avenj^e their kinsman's blood. The 
prophet declared that the angel Gabriel had re- 
vealed to him the atrocious conspiracy, to which 
he thus alludes siome time afterwards : " And call 
to mind, when the unbelievers plotted against thee 
that they might either detain thee in bonds, or put 
thee to death, or expel thee the city ; and they 
plotted agamst thee ; but God laid a plot against 
them ; and God is the best layer of plots."* The 
heavenly minister, however, who disclosed the 
plot, pointed out no way of defeating it but by a 
speedy flight. Even this chance of safety had 
like to have been cut off through the vigilance of 
nis enemies. He was indebted for his escape to 
the devoted zeal of Ali, who wrapped himself in 
the green mantle of the prophet, and lying down 
upon his bed deceived the assassins who had be- 
sieged the house of his friend. Moliammed, in 
the mean time, in company with his faithful friend 

* Koran. cH. Till. 


A-bubeker, succeeded in getting safely out of the 
city, and in reaching a cave tliree miles distant, 
called the cave of Thor, where the two fugitives 
concealed themselves three days from their pur- 
suers. A tradition of his followc s states that the 
assassins, having arrived at the uouth of the 
cave, were deceived by the nest of a pigeon made 
at its entiance, and by a web which a spider had 
fortunately woven across it. Believing this to be 
sufficient evidence that no human being was within, 
they desisted from all farther examination. The 
manifest tokens of divine protection vouchsafed 
to the prophet on this occasion, afforded him signal 
encouragement ever after, even in the entire des- 
titution of human resources. " If ye assist not 
the prophet, verily God will assist him, as he as- 
sisted him formerly, when the unbelievers drove 
him out of Mecca, the second of two (i. e. havhig 
only Abubeker with him) ; when they were both 
in the cave ; when he said unto his companion. Be 
not grieved, for God is with us. And God sent 
down his security upon him, and strengthened hira 
with armies which ye saw not."* Leaving the 
cave after the departure of their enemies, they 
made their way as rapidly as the perils of their 
flight would permit towards the city of refuge, 
where they arrived sixteen days after leaving 
Mecca. Having halted at Koba, two miles from 
Medina, he was there met by five hundred of the 
citizens who had gone forth for the purpose, ind 

* Koran, ch. ix» 



by whom his arrival was greeted with a cordii 
welcome. The prophet, having mounted a camd 
with an umbrella spread over his head, and a tur- 
ban unfurled instead of a banner, made his publi-: 
and solemn entry into the city, which was hereafi 
ter to be sanctified as the place of his throne 
This flight of the apostle of Islamism, called in 
the Arabic toiigue the Hkjira, or more properly the 
Hejra, has beconiejhe -grand era of all the Mo- 
hammedan nations, being employed _by_them for 
the" same purposes as the year of our Saviour's 
birth is throughout the nations of Christendom. It 
^tqok^place A. D. 622, in the fifty-third year of the 
prophet's age. 

The waiting adherents of the messenger of 
truth, composed of those of his friends who had 
by his orders fled from Mecca a short time before 
him, and the proselytes of Medina whom he had 
never seen, now flocked obsequiously about his 
person, and the distinction henceforth became es- 
rablished among his followers, of the Mohajerins\ 
or the companions of his flight, and the Ansars^ or 
helpers; familiar appellations for the fugitives of 
Mecca, and the auxiliaries of Medina. "As for 
the leaders and the first of the Mohajerin and the 
Ansars, and those who have followed them in well 
doing ; God is well pleased with them, and they 
are well pleased in him ; and he hath prepared 
them gardens watered by rivers ; they shall re- 
main therein for ever ; this shall be great felicity 

* Koran, ch ix. 



At this distance of time it is not possible to de- 
<!ide what class of citizens had the principal share 
in tendering this invitation to the prophet, and 
granting him such a ready reception. From the 
following passage, occurring in the first published 
chapter of the Koran after entering Medina, some 
writers have inferred that the nominal Christians 
of that city were the most active agents in intro- 
ducing the impostor. " Thou shalt surely find the 
most violent of all men in enmity against the true 
believers to be the Jews and the idolaters (i. e. 
pagan Arabs) ; and thou shalt surely find those 
among them to be the most inclinable to entertain 
friendship for the true believers who say, We are 
Christians. This cometh to pass because there 
are priests among them and monks, and because 
they are not elated with pride : and when they 
hear that which hath been sent down unto the 
apostle read unto them, thou shalt see their eyes 
overflow with tears because of the truth which 
they perceive therein ; saying, O Lord, we believe ; 
write us down therefore with those who bear wit- 
ness to the truth : and what should hinder us from 
believing in God, and the truth which hath come 
unto us, and from earnestly desiring that our Lord 
would introduce us into paradise w^ith the righteous 
people ?"* This is certainly important as a histo- 
rical document, and if the inference drawn from it 
be correct, it affords a melancholy proof of the 
Jeep degeneracy of the eastern churches, that they 

* Koran, ch. iiJ 


should be among the first to embrace the foul im- 
posture. If that were the fact, it furnishes pal- 
pable demonstration also, that when men have 
once began to swerve and deviate from the truth, 
no limits can be set to the degree of apostacy into 
which they are liable to fall. A fearful illustration 
is thus afforded of the law of the divine judg- 
ments, that where men, under the cloak of a Chris- 
tian profession, receive not the love of the truth, 
but have pleasure in unrighteousness, God shall 
send them strong delusion that they should believe 
a lie. and that too to their inevitable ruin. 



nu Prophet now raised to a high Pitch of Dignity — Builds a MosqUM 
— A Change in the Tone of his Revelations — The Faithful now com- 
manded to fight for the true Religion — His first war-like Attempt 
unsuccessful — The Failure compensated in the SecoTid — Account of 
the Rattle of Beder — This Victory much boasted of — Difficulties in 
the Division of the Spoil~-Caab, aJeWy assassinated at the Instance 
•f the Prophet. 

From a fugitive Mohammed became a monarch 
No sooner had he arrived at Medina than he found 
himself at the head of an army devoted to his 
person, obedient to his will, and blind believers in 
his holy office. He began at once to make ar- 
rangements for a permanent settlement, and his 
first business, after giving his daughter Fatima in 
marriage to Ali, was to erect a dwelling house for 
himself, and a temple or mosque, adjacent to his 
own residence, for a place of religious worship, in 
which he might pubhcly pray and preach before 
the people. For he now, in his own person, com- 
bined the temporal and the religious po\rer ; he 
was leader of his army, judge of his people, and 
pastor of his flock. 

With the change of his fortunes, his doctrines 
began also to vary. Hitherto he had propagated 
his religion by the milder arts of arguments and 
entreaties, and his whole success before leaving 
Mecca is to be attributed solely to the effect o/ per- 
suasion, and not of force. "Wherefore warn rliv 


people ; for thou art a warner only : thou art not 
empowered to act with authority over them."* 
Up to the period of his flight, he had utterly 
disclaimed the use of any species of coercion in 
propagating, or of violence in defending, the prin- 
ciples of his holy faith. In numerous passages of 
the Koian, published at Mecca, he expressly de- 
clares that his business was only to preach and 
admonish ; that he had no authority to compel any 
one to embrace his religion ; and that whether 
people believed or disbelieved was no concern of 
his, but a matter that belonged solely to God. 
" We have also spoken unto thee, O Mohammed, 
by revelation, saying, Follow the religion of Abra- 
ham, who was orthodox, and was no idolater. In- 
vite men unto the way of thy Lord by wisdom and 
mild exhortation ; and dispute with them in the 
most condescending manner : for thy Lord well 
knoweth him who strayeth from his path, and he 
well knoweth those who are rightly directed. 
Wherefore do thou bear opposition with patience; 
but thy patience shall not be practicable unless 
with God's assistance. And be not thou grieved 
on account of the unbehevers."t " Let there be 
no violence in religion." J Indeed, so far was he from 
allowing his followers to resort to violence, that he 
exhorted them to bear with meekness the injuries 
offered them on account of their faith, and when 
persecuted himself, chose rather to quit the place 
of his birth, and retire to a distant village than 

* Koran, ch. Ixxxviii. t Ch xv\. | Ch ii. 


make any resistance. But this exemplary modera* 
lion, continued for the space of twelve years, 
seems to have beer owing altogether to his want 
of power, and the ascendency of his enemies ; for 
no sooner was he enabled, by the assistance of the 
men of Medina, to withstand his adversaries, than 
he suddenly " altered his voice," declaring that 
God had allowed him and his followers to defend 
themselves by human weapons against the hifi- 
dels ; and as his forces increased, he pretended to 
have the divine permission to act upon the offensive 
also, to attack his foes, to root out idolatry at all 
hazards, and to urge the true faith at the point of 
the sword. " War is enjoined you against the in- 
fidels."* " Fight, therefore, against the friends 
of Satan, for the stratagem of Satan is weak.'*i 
" O true believers, take your necessary precaution 
against your enemies, and either go forth to war in 
separate parties, or go forth all together in a body."J 
And when the months wherein ye shall not be al- 
lowed to attack them shall be past, kill the idola- 
ters wherever ye shall find them, and take them 
prisoners, and besiege them, and lay wait for them 
in every convenient place."^ " When ye encoun- 
ter the unbelievers, strike off their heads until ye 
have made a great slaughter among them ; and bind 
them in bonds ; and either give them a free dis- 
mission afterward, or exact a ransom, until the 
v/ar shall have laid down its arms."|| " Verily, 
God hath purchased of the true believers their 

* Koran, ch. ii. fCh. iv. t Ibid. 

^ Ch. ix. II Ch. xlvii 


souls, and their substance, promising them the en- 
joyment of paradise on condition that they fighi 
for the cause of God : whether they slay or be 
slain, the promise for the same is assuredly due 
by the law, and the gospel, and the Koran."* This 
fierce, intolerant, and sanguinary spirit will be found 
to distinguish most of the chapters revealed at 
Medina, so that it can frequently be determined, 
from the tone and temper pervading it, without 
consultujg the date, whether the portion was re- 
vealed before or after the flight. The prophet's 
followers have faithfully acted up to the spirit of 
these precepts ; and the terrific announcement at- 
tending the Moslem arms has been, " The Koran, 
death, or tribute !" Even to the present day, every 
other religious sect living under the government 
of Mohammedan nations is compelled to pay an 
annual tax as a mulct for their infidelity, and are 
sure to meet with persecution, if not with death, if 
they oppose or vilify any of the tenets of the holy 
prophet. Indeed, every thing like argument of 
controversy with the unbelievers, though not abso- 
lutely forbidden, is far from being countenanced, as 
we may gather from the following precept to the 
prophet himself. " Let them not, therefore, dis- 
pute with thee concerning this matter : but invite 
them unto thy Lord : for thou folio west the right d* 
rection. But if they enter into debate with thee, 
God well knoweth that which ye do : God will judge 
between you on the day of resurrection concerning 
that wherein ye now disagree."! 

* Koran, c\k. ix- t Ch. xxti 


I'he prophet was now enabled to put in opera 
tion a more effectual system of measures to com- 
pass his great ends than he had hitherto had pow- 
er to adopt. He had begun to wield the sword by 
divine commission, and he was not disposed to let 
its potency remain unproved. Yet the first war- 
like enterprise undertaken under the auspices of 
the martial apostle, an expedition designed to har- 
rass the Koreish, was unsuccessful. Having 
learned that a caravan, the property of the hostile 
tribe, was on its way from Syria to Mecca, he des- 
patched his uncle Hamza, with a party of thirty 
horse to capture it. But the nearer approach of the 
caravan discovering to the assailants that it was 
guarded by a body of three hundred men, they 
deemed it prudent to forbear an attack, and to re- 
turn quietly to Mecca. 

The shame of the prophet's failure on this oc- 
casion was more than compensated by the success 
of his arms at the battle of Beder, so famous in 
the Mohammedan annals, which took place the en- 
suing year. A rich caravan proceeding to Mecca, 
and guarded by Abu Sophy an with between thirty 
and forty men, tempted at once the revenge and the 
cupidity of Mohammed. The spies of the prophet 
Viformed him that their rich and apparently easy 
prey was within his grasp. He advanced with a 
few followers in pursuit of it ; but before he could 
overtake the unprotected band, Abu Sophyan had 
despatched a messenger to his brethren of Mecca 
or a reinforcement. Roused by the fear of losing 
their merchandise and their provisions, unless they 


hastened to his relief, a troop of nine hundred and 
fifty men, among whom were the chief persons of 
the city, instantly obeyed the summons. Moham- 
med was posted between the caravan and the ap- 
proaching succour with only three hundred and thir- 
teen soldiers, mounted, for the most part, on ca- 
mels. Of these, seventy-seven were fugitives, the 
rest auxiliaries. Undismayed by this disparity of 
force Mohammed determined to try the event of 
a battle, and risk his fortune, his reputation, and 
perhaps his life, upon the issue of the contest. 
The troops were persuaded to engage the superior 
forces of the enemy, abandoning for the present 
the tempting prize of Abu Sophy an's wealthy ca- 
ravan. The prophet animated them by his prayers, 
and, in the name of the Most High, promised them 
certain victory. But however assured he might 
have been of divine assistance, he was careful to 
omit no human means of securing success. A 
slight entrenchment was formed to cover the flank 
of his troops, and a rivulet, flowing past the spot he 
had chosen for his encampment, furnished his army 
with a constant supply of water. When the enemy 
appeared descending from the hill, Mohammed, al- 
luding to his own party, exclaimed, " O God, if these 
are destroyed, by whom wilt thou be worshipped on 
earth? Courage, my children, close your ranks, 
discharge your arrows, and the day is your own !" 
Before the armies, however, could engage, three 
combatants, Ali, Al Hareth, and Haniza, on the side 
of the Moslems, and three of the Koreish, joined in 
single combat. Thtt Moslem champions were vie- 


torious, and thus gave to both armies a presage 
of the issue of the coming engagement. At the 
commencement of the battle, the prophet, together 
with Abubeker, mounted a kind of throne or pulpit, 
earnestly asking of God the assistance of Gabriel 
with three thousand angels ; but when his army 
appeared to waver, he started from his place of 
prayer, threw himself upon a horse, and casting a 
handful of sand into the air, exclaiming, " Con- 
fusion fill their faces !" rushed upon the ene- 
my. Fanaticism rendered his followers invincible. 
The forces of the Koreish were unable to break 
the ranks or to resist the furious charges of his 
confiding soldiers. They trembled and fled, leav- 
ing seventy of their bravest men dead on the field, 
and seventy prisoners to grace the first victory of 
the faithful. Of the Moslems, only fourteen were 
slain, whose names have been handed down to pos- 
terity, and enrolled among the list of martyrs, whose 
memory the pious Mussulman is taught to cherish 
with devout veneration. The dead bodies of the 
Koreish were stripped, and with a savage barbarity 
cast into a well ; two of the most obnoxious pri- 
soners were punished with death, and the ransom 
of the others fixed at four thousand drams of sil- 
ver. This sum would compensate, in a measure, 
for the escape of the booty ; for, notwithstanding 
the defeat, Abu Sophyan managed to effect a de- 
cent retreat, and to arrive safely at Mecca with 
the greater part of the caravan. The spoils how- 
ever arising from the ransom of the prisoners, and 
the partial plunder of the caravan, amounted to a 


considerable sum, the division of which had like to 
have proved fatal to the victors themselves. Foi 
of the two parties composing the prophet's army 
the Ansars, or auxiliaries, being the most nume 
rou3, laid claim to the greatest share. The Moha* 
jerins, from being first in the faith, assumed equal, 
at least, if not superior, merit to that of their com- 
rades, and a furious altercation ensued. Moham- 
med, in order to put an end to the contention, 
feigned a seasonable revelation from Heaven, in 
whicli orders were given him to divide the booty 
equally, after having deducted a fifth part for the 
uses of the prophet, and certain specified purposes 
of charity. " In the name of the most merciful 
God : They will ask thee concerning the spoils : 
Answer, The division of the spoils belongeth unto 
God and the apostle ; therefore, fear God and com- 
pose the matter amicably among you ; and obey 
God and his apostle, if ye be true believers." 
** Know that whenever ye gain any spoils, a fifth pari 
thereof belongeth unto God and to the apostle, and 
his kindred, and the orphans, and the poor, and the 
traveller."* The part which the prophet adjudged 
to himself on this occasion, amounted to several 
thousand drams, or dirams, of silver ; how much 
of this sum he allotted to " the poor, the orphans, 
and the traveller," history gives us no intimation. 

The success of Mohammed, with his little band 
of devotees, at the battle of Beder, is frequently 
alluded to in the Koran in a style of self-satisfied 

• Konin« ch viii 


viiuiiting and triumph, and is often appealed to by 
his followers as nothing less than a miraculous at- 
testation of God himself in favour of the prophet. 
" Ye have already had a miracle shown you in 
two armies which attacked each other : one armv 
fought for God's true religion, but the other were 
infidels ; they saw the faithful twice as many as 
themselves in their own eyesight ; for God strength- 
eneth with his help whom he pleaseth."* Besides 
the miracle of the infidels seeing the Moslem army 
double to wiiat it was, two others are said to have 
been wrought on this memorable occasion. 1. 
The sand or gravel which Mohammed threw into 
the air is said to have been carried by the power 
of God with such force against the faces of the 
enemy that they immediately turned their backs 
and fled. "And ye slew not those who were slain 
at Beder yourselves, but God slew them. Neither 
didst thou, Mohammed, cast the gravel into their 
eyes, when thou didst seem to cast it ; but Goa 
cast it."t 2. We are also taught, that God sent 
down to the prophet's aid, first a thousand, and af- 
terwards three thousand angels, having their heads 
adorned witli white and yellow sashes, the ends of 
which hung down between their shoulders ; and 
that this troop of celestial auxiliaries, borne upon 
black and white horses, and headed by Gabriel 
upon his steed Iliazum, really did all the execution in 
the defeat of the Koreish, though Mohammed's men 
fought bravely and, until better instructed, gave the 
credit of the victory entirely to themselves. " And 

* Koran, ch. xii. Ch. rui. 

1)8 LH'E of MOHAMMED. 

God had already given you the victory at Bedei, 
when ye were inferior in numbers ; therefore, fear 
God, that ye may be thankful. When thou saidst 
unto the faithful, Is it not enough for you, that your 
liOrd should assist you with three thousand angels, 
sent dow^n from Heaven. Verily, if ye persevere, 
and fear God, and your enemies come u\.on you sud- 
denly, your Lord will assist you with five thousand 
angels, distinguished by their horses and attire."* 
The vindictive spirit of the prophet was strikingly 
evinced not long after this event by the assassination 
of Caab, the son of Al-Ashraf, a Jew. This man, 
having a genius for poetry, and being inveterately 
opposed to Mohammed, went to Mecca after the 
battle of Beder, and with a view to excite the Ko- 
reish to revenge, deplored in touching verses the 
unhappy fate of those of their brethren who had 
fallen while valiantly resisting a renegade prophet, 
with his band of marauders. He afterward returned 
to Medina, and had the hardihood to recite his 
poems to the people within the walls of that city. 
Mohammed was so exceedingly provoked by the 
audacity of the poet, who must, indeed, have been 
possessed of the highest phrensy of his tribe to 
promise himself impunity in these circumstances, 
that he exclaimed, " Who will deliver me from the 
son of Al-Ashraf?" A certain namesake of the 
prophet, Mohammed, the son of Mosalama, a ready 
tool of his master, replied, " I, O prophet of God,, 
will rid you of him." Caab was soon after mur- 
dered while entertaining one of the apostle's fol» 

* Koran en. ill. 



Mohammed alters the KeUa—Many of his Followers greatly offended 
thereby— Mohajnynedan, tition of Prayer — Appoints the Fast of 
Ramadafi — Account of this Ordinance. 

On the second year of the Hejira, Mohammed 
altered the Kebla for his disciples, that is, the 
point of the compass towards which they were to 
direct their prayers. It was usual among the vota- 
ries of all the religions of the East to observe some 
particular point in the heavens towards which they 
turned their faces when they prayed. The Jews, 
in whatever part of the world they chanced to be, 
prayed with their faces towards Jerusalem, the 
seat of their sacred temple ; the A.rabians, towards 
Mecca, because there was the Caaba, the centre 
of their worship; the Sabians, towards tlie North 
Star: the Persians, who deified fire and light, to- 
wards the East, where the Sun, the fountain of 
Light, arose. " Every sect," says the Koran, 
" have a certain tract of heaven to which they turn 
themselves in prayer."* Mohammed, when he 
first arrr^ed in Medina, deeming the particular point 
itself a matter of perfect indifference, and with a 
view probably to ingratiate himself with the Jews, 
directed his disciples to pray towards Jerusalem, 
which he used to call the Holy City^ the City of 

* Koran, ch. ii. 


the Prophets^ and which he, at one time, intended 
to have made the grand seat of his worship, and 
the place of pilgrimage to his followers. But find- 
mg the Jews too intractable, or that his other con- 
verts still retained a superstitious regard for the 
temple of Mecca, for so many ages the place of 
idolatrous resort, and thinking it would tend to 
conciliate the inhabitants of that city, if he kept up 
the sanctity of their temple, he, at the end of six or 
seven months, repealed his former law regulating 
the Kebla, and thenceforward required all the faith- 
ful to offer their supplications with their faces 
directed towards Mecca. Though not now in ac- 
tual possession of that city, yet anticipating the time 
when it would be in the hands of Moslem masters, 
he fixed upon it as the future " holy city" of his 
followers. " From what place soever thou comest 
forth, turn thy face towards the holy temple ; and 
wherever ye be, thitherward turn your faces, lest 
men have matter of dispute against you."* This 
change was indeed an offence to many of his dis- 
ciples, from its indicating a singular degree of 
fickleness in a professed prophet, and large num- 
bers accordingly forsook him altogether on account 
of it. But his growing aversion to the Jews made 
him steadfast in the present alteration, to which he 
thus alludes in the Koran : " The foolish men 
will say. What hath turned them from their Kebla 
towards which they formerly prayed \ Say, Unto 
God belongeth the East and the West ; he direct- 
etli whom he pleaseth in the right way."t " We 

* Koran, ch. U. T IMd. 


lidve seen thee turn about thy face towards heaven 
with uneertamty ; but we will cause thee to tum 
thyself towards a Kebla that will please thee. 
Turn therefore thy face towards the holy temple 
of Mecca ; and, wherever ye be, turn your faces 
towards that place."* " Verily, although thou 
shouldst show unto those to whom the Scripture 
hath been given all kinds of signs, yet they will 
not follow thy Kebla, neither shalt thou follow theii 
Kebla ; nor will one part of them follow the Kebla 
of the other."! The bearing or situation of Mecca, 
with its holy temple, from any particular region of 
the Mohammedan world, is pointed out within their 
mosques by a niche, which governs the direction 
of their faces ; and without, by the situation of the 
doors which open into the galleries of the mi- 
narets. There are also tables calculated for the 
purpose of readily finding out I'leir Kebla, when 
they have no other means of ascertaining the right 

No duty enjoined by the Mohammedan creed is 
more prominent than that of prayer. The prophet 
himself used to call prayer " the pillar of religion 
and the key of paradise," and to say that there 
could be no good in that religion which dispensed 
with it. He therefore prescribed to his followers 
five stated seasons in the space of twenty-four 
hours for the performance of their devotions 1. 
In the morning, between daybreak and sunrise. 
2. Just after noon, when the sun begins to decline 
fri m the meridian. 3. At the middle hour between 

* Koran, ch. ii. t Ibid. 



noon and sunset. 4. Between sunset and dark 
5. An hour and a half after night has fully closed 
in. At these times, of which public notice is given 
by the muezzins, or criers, from the galleries of 
the minarets attached to the mosques — for the Mo- 
hammedans use no bells — every conscientious 
Moslem engages in this solemn duty, either in a 
mosque, or by spreading his handkerchief, and 
kneeling in any clean place upon the ground. JSuch 
extreme sacredness do they attach to this part of 
worship, and with such intensity ol* spirit do they 
hold themselves bound to attend upon it, that the 
most pressing emergency, the bursting out of a fire 
in their chamber, or the sudden irruption of an 
armed enemy into their gates or camps is not con- 
sidered a sufficient warrant for their abruptly break- 
ing oif their prayers. Nay, the very act of cough- 
ing, spitting, sneezing, or rubbing their skin in 
consequence of a fly-bite, in the midst of their 
prayers, renders all the past null and void, and 
obliges them to begin their devotions anew. In 
the act of prayer they make use of a great variety 
of postures and gestures, such as putting their 
hands one on the other before them, bending tlieir 
body, kneeling, touching the ground with their 
foreheads, moving the head from side to side, and 
several others, among which it is impossible to 
distinguish those enjoined by Mohammed himself 
from those which were common among the ancient 
Arab tribes before he arose. StiU it is afirmed 
by travellers, that, notwithstanding the scrupulous 
preciseness of the Moslem devotions, ho people 


are more deeply tinctured with the pharLsaical spiiit 
of ostentation, or love better to pray in the market- 
places, and in the corners of the streets, that they 
may be seen of men, and obtain their praise. 
Among the Turks especially it is said that where- 
ver they find the greatest concourse of spectators, 
particularly if they be Christians, tliere they are 
ever sure to spread their handkerchiefs, whatever 
inconveniences may attend the location, and begin 
\heir adorations. In these petitions, a very promi- 
nent object of request is, that God would grant the 
blessing of dissensions, wars, and tumults to be 
enkindled among Christians ; and the rumours of 
such joyful events are hailed as tokens of his gra- 
cious answers to their prayers. 

On the same year the prophet introduced into 
his religion the holy fast of Ramadan^ or Rama- 
zan^ so called from its being continued througli the 
whole of this month, which is the ninth in the or- 
der of the months of the Arabic year. Of this 
duty Mohammed used to say, it was " the gate of 
religion,'" and that " the odour of the mouth of him 
who fasted is more grateful to God than that of 
musk." An acceptable fast, according to the Mos- 
lem doctrine, includes abstinence from food, the 
restraining all the senses and members from their 
accustomed gratifications, and the withdrawment 
of the thoughts from every thing but God. The 
institution is thus announced in the Koran : " O 
true believers, a fast is ordained you, as it was or- 
dained unto those before you, that ye may fear 
God. A certain number of days shall ye fast : 


but he among you who shall be sick, or on a jour- 
ney, shall fast an equal number of other days 
And those who can keep it and do not, must re- 
deem their neglect by maintaining of a poor man* 
But if ye fast, it will be better for you, if ye knew 
it. The month of Ramadan shall ye fast, in which 
the Koran was sent down from Heaven, a direction 
unto men."* By the law of their religion, there- 
fore, the disciples of Islam are required to fast, 
while the sun is above the horizon, during the en- 
tire month of Ramadan, from the time the new 
moon first appears, till the appearance of the next 
new moon. Throughout that period they abstain 
wholly from the pleasures of the table, the pipe, 
and the harem ; they neither eat, drink, nor receive 
any thing into their mouths during the day, till the 
evening lamps, hung around the minarets, are 
lighted by the Imam, or priest of the mosque, when 
they are released from the obligations of abstinence. 
They then give themselves, without restraint, to the 
pleasures of the palate, and compensate in full mea- 
sure for the penance of the day by the indulgence 
of the night. This is continued, according to the 
law of the prophet, " till they can plainly distin 
guish a white thread from a black thread by the 
daybreak,"! when the season of self-denial com- 
in'^nces again for the ensuing day. As most of 
thr- Mohammedans, however, are not too scrupu- 
lous to quell the annoyance of appetite by sleeping 
.-iway the hours of the day, the observance of the 

♦Koran, ch.U. tibid 


fast of Ramadan is little more than turning day into 
night, and night into day. As the Arabic year is 
lunar, each month in a period of thirty-three years, 
Tails into all the different seasons of the solar year 
and consequently the observance of the fast, when 
the month of Ramadan occurs in summer, is ren- 
dered, by the length and heat of the days, ex- 
tremely rigorous and trying ; especially as the poor 
are still compelled to labour during the day ; and 
yet are forbidden, upon pain of death, to assuage 
their thirst by a drop of water. 

126 "FE or MOHA>rMED. 


The Koreiah undntake a new Expedition against the Prophet— Thi 
Battle of Ohod — Mohammed and his Army entirely defected— His fol 
lowers wurrnur — The PropheVs poor devices to retrieve the disgrace 
mcurred ia this action— Resolves it mainly into the doctrine of Pre- 
destination — Wine and Games of chance forbiddev.—iSophyanj son 
of Caledf slain — War of the Ditch. 

The resentment of Abu Sophyan and the citi- 
zouji of Mecca, for the loss and the disgrace sus- 
tained the preceding year, stimulated them to un- 
dertake a new expedition against the warlike apos- 
tle. The Koreish accordingly assembled an army 
of three thousand men imder the command of Abu 
Sophyan, and proceeded to besiege their enemy in 
the city of Medina. Mohammed, being much in- 
ferior in numbers to the invading army, determined 
at first to await and receive their attack within the 
walls of the city. But the ardour of his men, en- 
kindled by the recollection of their former success, 
could not brook restraint ; tiiey clamorously de- 
manded to be led out to battle ; and he unwisely 
yielded to their request. Impelled, also, himself, 
by the same spirit of rash confidence, he unwarily 
promised them certain victory. The prophetic 
powers of the apostle were to be estimated by the 
event. Mohammed, in every encounter, seems to 
have manifested, in a high degree, the talents of a 
'general. In the present instanc his army, con- 


sisting of about one thousand men, was advantage- 
ously posted on the declivity of the mountain 
Ohod, four miles to the north of Medina. Three 
standards were confided each one to a separate 
tribe, while the great standard was carried before 
the prophet, and a chosen band of fifty archers 
were stationed in the rear, with peremptory orders 
to remain there till commanded to the attack 
bv Mohammed himself. The Koreish advanced 
m the form of a crescent ; Caled, the fiercest of 
the Arabian warriors, led the right wing of the ca- 
valry ; while Hinda, the wife of Abu Sophy an, ac- 
companied by fifteen matrons of Mecca, inces- 
santly sounded timbrels to animate the troops to 
the approaching conflict. The action commenced 
by the Moslems charging down the hill, and break- 
ing through the enemy's ranks. Victory or para- 
dise was the reward promised by Mohammed to 
his soldiers, and they strove with frantic enthusi- 
asm to gain the expected recompense. The line 
of the enemy was quickly disordered, and an easy 
victory seemed about to crown the spirit and valour 
of the Moslem troops. At this moment, the arch- 
ers in the rear, impelled by the hope of plunder, 
deserted their station and scattered themselves over 
the field. The intrepid Caled, seizing the favour- 
able opportunity, wheeled his cavalry on their flank 
and rear, and exclaiming aloud, " Mohammed is 
slain!" charged with such fury upon the disordered 
ranks of the Moslems, as speedily to turn the fate 
of the day. The flying report of the death of their 
leader so dispirited the faithful, that they gave way 


in every direction, and the rout soon became gene- 
ral. Mohammed endeavoured in vain to rally his 
broken troops ; he fought with desperate valour ; 
exposed his person where the danger appeared 
greatest; was wounded in the face by a javelin; 
had two of his teeth shattered by a stone ; was 
thrown from his horse ; and would in all probabi 
lity have been slain, but for the determined bra- 
very of a few chosen adherents, who rescued their 
leader from the throng, and bore him away to a 
place of safety. The day was utterly lost ; se- 
venty of his soldiers were slain, among whom was 
his uncle Hamza ; and his reputation as a prophet 
and apostle was in imminent peril. His followers 
murmured at the disastrous issue of the conflict, 
and had the hardihood to affirm that the prophet 
had deceived them ; that the will of the Lord had 
not been revealed to him, since his confident pre- 
diction of success had been followed by a signal 
defeat. The prophet, on the other hand, threw the 
blame on the sins of the people ; the anger of the 
Lord had fallen upon them in consequence of an 
overweening conceit of their security, and because 
he had determined to make tr'al of their sincerity. 
"After a misfortune hath befallen you at Ohod, do 
ye say. Whence cometh this? Answer, This is 
from yourselves : for God is almighty, and what 
happened unto you was certainly by the permis 
sion of God, that he might know the faithful and 

that he might know the ungodly. And we 

cause these days of different success interchange- 
ably to succeed each other among men, that God 

l^IFii. OF MOHAMMED. 129 

might prove those who believe, and might destroy 
the infidels. — Did ye imagine that ye should entei 
paradise, when as yet God knew not those among 
you who fought strenuously hi his cause ; nor knew 
those who persevered with patience ? — Verily, they 
among you who turned their backs on the day 
whereon the two armies met each other ^* Ohod, 
Satan caused them to slip for some criine which 
they had committed."* In order to stifle the mur- 
murs of those who were overwhelmed with grief 
at the loss of their friends and relatives, he repre- 
sented to them, that the time of every man's death 
is distinctly fixed by the divine decree, and that 
those who fell in battle could not have avoided 
their predetermined fate even if they had staid at 
home ; whereas now they had obtained the glo- 
rious privilege of dying martyrs for the faith, and 
were consequently translated to the bliss of para- 
dise. " true believers, be not as they who be- 
lieve not, and said of their brethren when they 
had journeyed in the land, or had been at war, 
If they had been with us, those had not died, nor 
had these been slain : whereas, what befell them 
was so ordained. — No soul can die unless by the 
permission of God, according to what is written in 
the book containing the determination of things. — 
Thou shalt in no wise reckon those who have been 
slain at Ohod, in the cause of God, dead : nay, 
they are sustained alive with their Lord, rejoicing 
for what God of his favour hath granted them."t 
With these miserable evasions did he excuse the 

• Koran, ch. iii. _ tibid 

47—9 L 


falsehood of his prediction, and salve over the 
ignominy of his defeat. This doctrine of fatalism 
however, took a deep root among his followers, and 
to this day the Mohammedans are the most stre- 
nuous sticklers of any people on earth for the doe 
trine of absolute unconditional predestination. 
" No accident," saith the Koran, " happeneth in the 
earth, nor in your persons, but the same was en- 
tered in the book of our decrees, before we cre- 
ated it."* 

Abu Sophy an, for reasons now inexplicable, did 
not pursue the advantages he had gained on this 
occasion. He merely gave the prophet a chal- 
lenge to meet him again in the field on the ensu- 
ing year, which was readily accepted, although 
somewhat more than a year elapsed before the 
actual renewal of hostilities. 

* " We had at the same time the following striking instance of the 
frivolous appeals to the Deity among the Mohammedans. A man went 
round Vm caravan, crying with a loud voice, 'In the name of God, the 
just, the merciful. My cup is gone from me: it disappeared while I 
prayed at sunset (and may God grant my evening prayer). To whoever 
may find the same, may God lengthen out his life, may God augment 
his pleasures, and may God bring down affairs of business on his head I' 
This pompous appeal to Heaven, and prayers for good fortune to the 
finder of the missing utensil, were all powerless, however, in their 
effect. The lost cup was not found; and the consolation then assumed 
was, ' God knows where it is gone ; but it was written in heaven from of 
old." " — Bnckingham's Travrlsin Mesopotamia, vol. i. p. 281, Lond. 1827. 

" While this was going on, the author of our calamity [a vessel' had 
been run aground] was pacing the deck, the picture of terror and inde- 
cision, calling aloud on Mohammed to assist us out of the danger. His 
fears were not much lessened by the threats thrown out by each passing 
tar. M say, Jack,' said one of them, " we'll string you up for this ;' 
making his observation intelligible, by pointing with one hand to the 
yard-arm, and with the other to the neck of his auditor, at the same 
linre imitating the convulsive guggle of strangulation. When called 
to account for his obstmacy, the pilot gave us an answer in the true 
spirit of (Mohammedan) predestination ;—^T/it is Go^s 'pleasure that 
the ship should go ashore, what business is it ofmine?^^^ — KeppeVs Jour- 
ney from India to England* in 1824. v- 33. 


About this time, or in the fourth year of the 
Hej.ira (A. D. 626), Mohammed prohibited the use 
of wine and of games of chance to his followers. 
" They will ask thee of wine and lots. Answer, 
In both these there is great sin, and also some 
things of use unto men ; but their sinfulness is 
greater than their use."* The occasion of this 
prohibition seems to have been the prophet's wit- 
nessing their bad effects in producing discord and 
broils among his disciples. " O true believers, 
wine and games of chance are an abomination, of 
the work of Satan ; therefore avoid them, that ye 
may prosper. Satan seeketh to sow dissension and 
hatred among you by means of wine and lots, and 
to divert you from remembering God, and from 
prayer ; will ye not, therefore, abstain from them ?" 
The sins of the past, arising from this source, are 
graciously remitted on condition of future amend- 
ment. " In those who believe and do good works, 
it is no sin that they have tasted wine or gaming 
before they were forbidden ; if they fear God and 
believe, and do good works, and shall for the future 
fear God and believe, and shall persevere to fear 
him and to do good. Obey God, and obey the 
apostle, and take heed to yourselves : but if ye 
turn back, know that the duty of our apostle is 
only to preach publicly."! Under wine are com- 
prehended also all kinds of strong and hiebriating 
liquors ; and though Mussulmans of lax and liber- 
line principles, and many such there are, will indulge 
themselves with the forbidden beverage, yet the 
* Koran, ob. ii. t Clh. ▼. 


more conscientious scrupulously avoid it, and na 
only hold it criminal to taste of wine, but also tt 
press grapes for the making of it, to buy or to sel' 
it, or even to maintain themselves with the mone\ 
arising from the sale of it. 

Another act of blood stains the fame of M<^ 
hammed in this part of his history. Being in 
formed that Sophy an, the son of Caled, was col 
lecting men for the purpose of attacking him, h* 
ordered Abdallah, the son of Onais, surname t 
Dhul-Malldhrat, that is, a man ready to undertake 
any thing, to assassinate his designing foe. Ah 
dallah obeyed the prophet's command, and mui 
dered Sophyan in the valley of Orsa. He imme- 
diately returned to Mohammed, who, upon heai 
ing the success of the enterprise, gave him as i 
token of his friendship the cane with which he usv- 
ally walked. 

In the fifth year of the Hejira occurred the wa* 
of the ditch, or, as it is otherwise termed, the wa' 
of the nations ; which, but for peculiar circum 
stances, would probably have resulted in the entir^f 
overthrow of the impostor. The Koreish, in coii 
junction with a number of the neighbouring tribes 
or nations, many of whom were Jews, assemblec^ 
an army of ten thousand men, and making commoi 
cause against the grand adversary of their ancien 
religion, advanced to the siege of Medina. Oi 
their approach, Mohammed, by the advice of So 
liman, or Salman, the Persian,* ordered a deej 

* This Soliman, otherwiac called Suleiman Pauk (i.e. the Pure), bat 
celebrated tomb erected to his memory near the ruins of the ancien: 


iitch, or intrenchmeiil, to be dug around the city 
for its security, behind which he remained fortiiie(>' 
for near a month. During this period, no othe/ 
acts of hostility occurred than a few inefTectua] 
attempts to annoy each otlier by shooting arrows 
and slinging stones. In the mean time, tradition 
says, the prophet was busily employed by his arts 
and emissaries, in corrupting and bringing over to 
his interest the leading men among the enemy. 
Having succeeded with several, he employed them 
in sowing dissensions among the rest; so that at 
length the camp of the confederates was torn to 
pieces with divisions, and one party breaking off 
after another, nearly the whole army was finally 
dissipated, and the little remnant that remained 
thrown into confusion and made powerless by the 
direct visitation of an angry God. For while they 

Ctesiphon, on the Tigris. It is amon^ the prominent objects of curi- 
osity to modern travellers to the East. " From the ruins we went to 
the tomb of Suleiman Pauk, whose name has superseded that of the 
builder of this magnificent pile, in giving a name to the district. The 
tomb is a small building with a dome ; the interior, to which they 
allowed us access, on our pulling off our shoes, was ornamented with 
arabesque arches, and the suTounding enclosure was used as a cara- 
vanserai." — KeppeVs Journey, p. 82. 

" After traversing a space within the walls strewed with fragments 
of burnt brick and pottery, we came in about half an hour to the tomb 
of Selman Pauk, which is within a short distance of the ruined palace 
ofChosroes. We found here a very comfortable and secure retreat, 
within a high-walled enclosure of about a hundred paces square, in the 
centre of which rose the tomb of the celebrated favourite of Mohammed. 
This Selman Pauk, or Selman the Pure, was a Persian barber, who, 
from the fire-worship of his ancestors, became a convert to leilam, 
under the persuasive eloquence of the great prophet of Medina himself, 
and after a life of fidelity to the cause he had embraced, was buried here 
in his native city of Modain (Ctesiphon). The memory of this beloved 
companion of the great head of their faith is held in great respect by all 
the Mohammedans of the country ; for, besides the annual feast of the 
barbers of Bagdad, who, in the month of April visit his tomb as that of 
a patron saint, there are others who come to it on pilgrimage at all sea- 
•ons of the year." — Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. % 



iay encamped about the city, a remarkable tem- 
pest, supernaturally excited, bemimbed the limbs 
of the besiegers, blew dust in their faces, extin- 
fished their fires, overturned their tents, and put 
their horses in disorder. The angels, moreover, 
co-operated with the elements in discomfiting the 
enemy, and by crying "Allah Acbar!" (God is 
:^reat /) as their invisible legions surrounded the 
camp, struck them with such a panic, that they 
were glad to escape with their lives. 

The prophet was not insensible to the marks of 
die divine favour vouchsafed him in these illus- 
trious prodigies, nor did he fail to hold them up to 
the consolation of his followers on subsequent 
occasions. " O true believers, remember the fa- 
vour of God towards you, when armies of infidels 
came against you, and we sent against them a wind, 
and hosts of angels which ye saw not."* But, to 
whatever it were owing, whether to human or hea- 
venly agency, it is certain that from this time the 
Koreish gave up all hopes of putting an end to the 
growing power and spreading conquests of Mo- 
hammed. They henceforth undertook no more 
expeditions against him. 

* Konn, ch. xxxlii 



The Jews the special objects of MohammeiPs Enmity — beveral Tnbes of 
them reduced to Subjection — Undertakes a Pilgrimage to Mecca— - 
The Meccans conclude a Truce with him of ten years — His Power 
and Authority greatly increased — Has a Pulpit constructed for his 
Mosque — Goes against Chaibar, a City of the Arab Jews — Besieges 
and takes the City, but is poisoned at an Entertainment by a young 
Woman — Is still able to prosecute his Victories. 

Whatever might have been the prophet's early 
reverence for the city of Jerusalem, and his friend- 
ship towards the Jews, who, together with the sons 
of Ishmael, claimed in Abraham a common father, 
their obstinacy converted his favour into impla- 
cable hatred ; and to the last moment of his life 
he pursued that unfortunate people with a rigour 
of persecution unparalleled in his treatment oi 
other nations. The Jewish tribes of Kainoka, Ko- 
raidha, and the Nadhirites, lying in the vicinity of 
Medina, were singled out as the next objects of his 
warlike attempts ; and as they fell an easy prey 
to the power of his arms, spoliation, banishment, 
and death were the several punishments to which 
he adjudged them, according to the grade of their 
crime in rejecting a prophet or opposing a con- 

Our intended limits will not permit us to enu- 
merate the various battles fought by Mohammed 
during the five succeeding 3^ears. Suffice it to 


say, that, according to the computation of some of 
his biographers, no less than twenty-seven expedi- 
tions were undertaken, in which he commanded 
personally, and in which nine pitched battles were 
fought. The heart sickens in following a pro- 
fessed messenger and apostle of God from one 
scene of blood and carnage to another, making th*^ 
pretences of religion a cloak to cover the most un 
bounded ambition and the vilest sensuality. A 
mind untrained to a deep sense of the purity and 
peaceableness of the religion of Jesus may be daz- 
zled by the glare of a tide of victories, and lose its 
detestation of the impostor in admiring the success 
of the conqueror. But to one who feels the force 
of Christian principles, no relief is afforded by the 
view of arduous battles won, of sieges undertaken, 
or of cities sacked or subjected, by the prowess of 
a leader whose career is stained like that of the 
founder of Islam. 

One or two subsequent expeditions, however, are 
too important in the prophet's history to be passed 
over without notice. In the sixth year of the 
Hejira, with fourteen hundred men, he undertook 
what he declared to be a peaceful pilgrimage to 
the holy temple of Mecca. The inhabitants were 
jealous of his intentions ; and while he halted 
several days at Hodeibiya, from whence he des- 
patched an emissary to announce his intention, 
they came to a determination to refuse him admit- 
tance, and sent him word, that if he entered the 
city, it must be by forcing his way at the point of 
the sword. Upon this intelligence, the warlike 


pilgrim called his men together, and it was resolved 
to attack the city. The Meccans, in the mean 
time, having more accurately measured their 
strength, or estimated their policy, and having been, 
besides, somewhat wrought upon by an unex 
pected act of clemency on the part of Mohammed, 
in pardoning and dismissing eighty prisoners of their 
fellow-citizens, who had fallen into his hands, 
altered their purpose of resistance, and sent an 
ambassador to his camp to confer upon terms of 
peace. Some umbrage was given to the Moslems 
by the facility with which their leader waived the 
title of Apostle of God,* but the result was the 
concluding of a truce of ten years, in which it was 
stipulated, that the prophet and his followers should 
have free access to the city and temple whenever 
they pleased, during the period of the truce, pro- 
vided they came unarmed as befitted pilgrims, and 
remained not above three days at a time. In the 
48th chapter of the Koran, entitled " The Victory," 
the prophet thus alludes to the events of this ex 
pedition ; " If the unbelieving Meccans had fought 
against you, verily they had turned their backs ; 
and they would not have found a patron or pro- 
tector ; according to the ordinance of Gcd, which 
hath been put in execution heretofore agamst the 

* "In wording the treaty, when the prophet ordered Ali to begin with 
the form, In the name of the moH merciful God, they (the Meccans) 
objected to it, and insisted that he should begin with this, In thy name^ 
O God ; which Mohammed submitted to, and proceeded to dictate : These 
are the conditions on which Mohammed, the apostle of God, has made 
peace with those of Mecca. To this Sohail again objected, saying, If we 
had acknowledged thee to be the apostle of God , we had not given, thee 
any opposition. Whereupon Mohammed ordered Ali to write as Sohail 
desired, These are the conditions which Mohammed, the son ofAbdal 
lah^^ S>'C. — SaWs Koran, vol. 2 p. 3S4. note. 


opposers of the prophets. It was he who re- 
strained their hands from you, and your handa 
from them, in the valley of Mecca." The entrance 
into Mecca on this occasion is vaunted of by the 
apostle as the fulfilment of a prophetic dream. 
" Now hath God in truth verified unto his apostle 
the vision, wherein he said, Ye shall surely enter 
the holy temple of Mecca, if God please, in full 

This event tended greatly to confirm the powei 
of Mohammed ; and not long after, he was solemnly 
inaugurated and invested with the authority of a 
king by his principal men. With the royal dignity 
he associated that of supreme pontiff of his reli- 
gion, and thus became at once the king and priest 
of his Moslem followers, whose numbers had by 
this time swelled to a large amount. So intense 
bad their devotion to their leader now become, that 
even a hair that had dropped from his head, and 
•he water in which he washed himself, were care- 
fully collected and preserved, as partaking of 
superhuman virtue. A deputy, sent from another 
^ity of Arabia to Medina to treat with the prophet, 
")eheld with astonishment the blind and unbomided 
v^eneration of his votaries. " I have seen," said 
le, " the Chosroes of Persia, and the Caesar of 
Rome, but never did I behold a king among his 
subjects like Mohammed among his companions." 

With this new addition to his nominal authority, 
he began to assume more of the pomp and parade 
due to his rank. After the erection of the mosque 
at Medina, in which the prophet himself officiated 


as leader of worship, he had for a long time no other 
convenience in the way of stand, desk, or pulpit, 
than the trunk of a palm-tree fixed perpendicularly 
in the ground, on the top of which he was accus 
tomed to lean while preaching. This was now 
become too mean an accommodation, and by the 
advice of one of his wives he caused a pulpit to 
be constructed, with a seat and two steps attached 
to it, which he henceforth made use of instead of 
the " beam." The beam, however, was loath to 
be deprived of its honour, and the dealers in the 
marvellous among his followers say, that it gave 
an audible groan of regret when the prophet left 
it. Othman Ebn AfFan, when he became Caliph, 
hung this pulpit with tapestry, and Moawiyah, an- 
other Caliph, raised it to a greater height by add- 
ing six steps more, in imitation, doubtless, of the 
ivory throne of Solomon, and in this form it is 
said to be preserved and shown at the present day, 
as a holy relic, in the mosque of Medina. 
/This year he led his army against Chaibar, a 
city inhabited by Arab Jews, who offering him a 
manly resistance, he laid siege to the place and 
carried it by storm. A great miracle is here saiil 
to have been performed by Ali, surnamed "The Lion 
of God." A ponderous gate, which eight men after- 
ward tried in vain to lift from the ground, was 
lorn by him from its hinges, and used as a buck- 
ler during the assault !* Mohammed, on entering 

* " Abu Rafe, the servant of Mohammed, is said to have affirmed that 
he was an eve- witness of the fact ; but who will be witness for Ab» 
- - r—Gibh<m. 


ihe town, took up his quarters at the house of 
Hareth, one of the principal inhabitants, and here 
met with a reception which eventually cost him 
his life. Zeinab, the daughter of Hareth, while 
preparing a meal for the conqueror and his attend- 
ants, inserted a quantity of poison into a shoulder 
of mutton which was served up at the table. Ba- 
shar, a companion of Mohammed, had scarcely 
began to eat of it, before he was seized with con- 
vulsions, and died upon the spot. Mohammed, by 
spitting out the greatest part of what he had taken 
into his mouth, escaped immediate death, but the 
effects of the fatal drug had entered his system, and, 
resisting every effort of medicine to expel or counter- 
act it, in somewhat more than three years afterward 
it brought him to his end. If, as the reporters of 
Mohammed's miracles affirm, the shoulder of mut- 
ton informed the prophet of its being poisoned, it 
is certain the intelligence came too late. The 
seeds of death were henceforth effectually sown 
in his constitution ; and his own decline ever after 
kept pace with his growing power. When Zeinab 
was asked, how she had dared to perpetrate a 
deed of such unparalleled enormity, she is said to 
have answered, " that she was determined to make 
trial of his powers as a prophet : if he were a true 
prophet," said she, "he would know that tlie meat 
was poisoned ; if not, it would be a favoui to the 
world to rid it of such a tyrant." It is not agreed 
among the Mohammedan writers what was the 
punishment inflicted upon this second Jael, or 
whether slie sutiered any. Some affirm that she 
was pardoned ; others th^t she was put to death. 


The progress of the prophet's disease was noi 
such as to prevent him from prosecuting that suo 
cessful course of conquests in which he was now 
engaged. The Jews, the constant objects of his 
vengeance, again tempted his victorious sword. 
He proceeded against Beder, Watiba, and Selalima ; 
places which he brought under subjection, permit- 
ting their inhabitants to retain possession on con- 
dition of paying him one half the product of their 
date-trees as an annual tribute. On these terms 
they remained undisturbed in their towns and vil- 
lages during the lifetime of the prophet; till a^ 
length, in the reign of Omar, who prt;tended thai 
Mohammed in his last sickness had given him a 
charge not to permit two religions to co<^xist in 
Arabia, they were all expelled from theii Micient 



Uohammed alleges a Breach of Faith on the part of the MeccanSf Mnd 
inarches an Army against them —The City surrendered to the CoTtr 
queror — Abu Sophy an and Al Abbas, the PropheVs Uncle ^ declare 
themselves Converts — Mecca declared to be Holy Ground — The neigh- 
bouring Tribes collect an Army of four thousand men to arrest the 
growing power of the Prophet— The Confederates entirely overthrown 
— A rival Prophet arises in the person of Moseilama — Is crushed 
by Caled. 

Two years had scarcely elapsed when Moham- 
med accused the Meccans of violating the truce, 
and made their alleged breach of faith a pretence 
for summoning an army of ten thousand men with 
a design to make himself master of the city. He 
was now strong, and his enemies were weak. His 
superstitious reverence for the city of his birth, 
and the temple it contained, served to influence his 
determination for war. The time since the con- 
cluding of the truce had been skilfully employed 
m seducing the adherents of the Koreish, and con* 
verting to his religion, or enticing under his stand- 
ard, the chief citizens of Mecca. By forced 
marches he urged his large army rapidly towards 
the city, and so unexpectedly was the place invested 
by the Moslem troops, that they had scarcely time 
to put themselves in a posture of defence before 
they were driven to such extremities, that the sur- 
render of the city at discretion, or total destruction, 
seemed to be the only alternative. In these cir- 


fumstances the former step was resolved upon, 
humiliating as it was, and Abu Sophyan, the former 
inveterate enemy of Mohammed and his religion, 
accompanied by Al Abbas, an uncle of the impos- 
tor, came forth and presented the keys of the city 
to the conqueror. Nor was this all : they both 
crowned their submission by bowing to the pro- 
phetic claims of their new master, and acknowledg- 
ing him as the apostle of God. This we may 
suppose was a constrained admission, made under 
the uplifted scimitar of the furious Omar, and 
yielded as the price of life. Mohammed, though 
a conqueror and an impostor, was not habitually 
cruel ; his anger was directed rather against the 
gods of his country, than its inhabitants. The 
chiefs of the Koreish prostrated themselves before 
iiim, and earnestly demanded mercy at his hands. 
*' What mercy can you expect from the man you 
have wronged ?" exclaimed the prophet. " We 
confide in the generosity of our kinsman." " You 
shall not confide in Viin," was the generous or 
politic reply of Mohammed. " Be gone ; you are 
safe ; you are free." They were thenceforth left 
unmolested, and places of honour and trust were 
still confided to them. On his entry into the city, 
of wliich he had now made himself absolute mas- 
ter With the sacrifice of only three men and two 
women, whom he ordered to be executed, he pro- 
ceeded to purge the Caaba of its three hundred 
and sixty idols, and to consecrate that temple anew 
to the purposes of his religion. The apostle 
again fultilled the duties of a pilgrim, and a per- 


petual law was enacted, that no unbeliever should 
dare to set his foot on the territory of the holy 
city. On the day on which the prophet entered 
Mecca in triumph, he ordered Belal, his crier, to 
mount to the top of the temple at noon, and from 
thence to call the people to prayer for the first 
time under the new institution. This custom has 
been religiously observed in Mohammedan coun- 
tries from that day to the present ; the crier, who 
is called muezzin^ still giving the people notice of 
the hour of prayer from the minarets of their 

When the news of the conquest of Mecca 
reached the neighbouring tribes of Arabs, the Ha- 
wazins, Takifians, and others, hastily assembled a 
force amounting to about four thousand men, with 
the design of crushing the usurper before his dan- 
gerous power had attained to any greater height. 
Mohammed, appointing a temporary governor of 
the city, marched out with an army of no less 
than twelve thousand men, and met the enemy in 
the valley of Honein, three miles from Mecca, on 
the way to Tayef. The Moslems, seeing them- 
selves so vastly superior in point of numbers, were 
mspired with a presumptuous confidence of victory, 
which had like to have resulted in their ruin. In 
the first encounter, the confederates rushed upon 
the faithful with such desperate valour, that they 
put nearly the whole army to flight, many of them 
retreating back to the walls of Mecca itself. Mo- 
hammed, mounted on a white mule, with a few of 
his faithfid followers at his side, boldly maintained 


his ground ; and such was his ardour in this crisis 
of the conflict, that it was by main force that one 
of his uncles and a cousin, laying hold of his 
bridle and stirrup, restrained him from rushing 
alone into the midst of the enemy. " O my bre- 
thren," he exclaimed, " I am the son of Abdallah ! 
I am the apostle of truth ! O men, stand fast in 
the faith ! O (Hod, send down thy succour !" His 
uncle Abbas, who possessed a Stentorian voice, 
exerting the utmost strength of his lungs, recalled 
the flying troops, and gradually rallied them 
again around the holy standard ; on which the pro- 
phet, observing with pleasure " that the furnace 
was rekindled," charged with new vigour the ranks 
of the infidels and idolaters, and finally succeeded 
in obtaining a complete victory, though not, as ap- 
pears from the Koran, without the special assist- 
ance of angels. The giving way in the first in- 
stance was a mark of the Divine displeasure against 
the Moslems for their overweening confidence in 
their superior numbers. " Now hath God assisted 
you in many engagements, and particularly at the 
battle of Honein ; when ye pleased yourselves in 
your multitudes, but it was no manner of advan- 
tage unto you ; the earth seemed to be too narrow 
in your precipitate flight : then did ye retreat and 
turn your backs. Afterward God sent down his 
security upon his apostle and upon the faithful, and 
troops of angels which ye saw not."* 

The remaining part of the year was spent in 
demolishing the temples and idols of the subject 

* Koran, oh. ix. 

47—10 M 


Arabs. Saad, Caled, and others of his Moslem 
chieftains were despatched in various directions over 
the conquered provinces with orders to wage a war 
of extermination against the idols of the ancient su- 
perstition. Ttiis pious crusade was crowned with 
the conversion of many idolaters, as well as with 
the destruction of the " lying vanities" of their 
worship, and it is not strange that they should 
have admitted the doctrine of the divine unity, 
when the destroying sword of the apostle had cut 
off all gods but one. 

The prophet having now become in fact the so- 
vereign of Arabia, he began, in the ninth year of 
the Hejira, to meditate the conquest of Syria. 
He did not live fully to accomplish this design, 
which was executed by his successors ; but he en- 
tered upon it, and notwithstanding the expedition 
was undertaken in the heat of the summer, and 
the scarcity of water subjected his men to almost 
intolerable sufferings, yet he succeeded in obtain- 
ing possession of Tabuc, a town on the confines of 
the Greek empire, from whence he made a victo- 
rious descent upon the adjacent territories ofDau- 
ma and Eyla. Their princes yielded to the des- 
tiny which now seemed to accompany the arms of 
the impostor wherever they were turned, and they 
were henceforth enrolled among his tributaries. 
This was the last expedition on which the pro- 
phet went forth in person. The fame of his power 
had now become so extensive and imposing, that 
distant tribes were awed into submission, and sent 
their emissaries to tender to him the volimtar>' 


acknowledgment of their homage and fealty. The 
numerous deputations which for this and other 
purposes, waited upon Mohammed this year, in- 
duced him to call it " The Year of Embassies." 

The close of this year was distinguished by the 
prophet's last pilgrimage to Mecca, called, from 
its being the last, " The Pilgrimage of Valedic- 
tion." An idea of the amazing increase of his fol- 
lowers since he last visited Mecca may be formed 
from the fact, that on this occasion he is said to 
have been accompanied by one hundred and four- 
teen thousand Moslems! 

Signal success in any enterprise seldom fails 
to call forth imitators and rivals. Mohammed 
had now become too powerful to be resisted by 
force, but not too exalted to be troubled by corrt- 
petition. His own example in assuming the sa- 
cred character of an apostle and prophet, and the 
brilliant success which had attended him, gave a 
hint to others of the probable means of advancing 
themselves to a similar pitch of dignity and do- 
minion. The spirit of emulation, therefore, raised 
up a formidable fellow-prophet in the person of 
Moseilama, called to this day by the followers oi 
Islam, " the lying Moseilama," a descendant of the 
tribe of Hoi.eifa, and a principal personage in the 
province of Yemen. This man headed an em- 
bassy sent by his tribe to Mohammed, in the ninth 
year of the Hejira, and then professed himself a 
Moslem ; but on his return home, pondermg on the 
nature of the new religion and the character and 
fortunes of its founder the saeiilegious suggestion 


occurred to him, that by skilful management he 
might share with his countryman in the glory of 
a divine mission ; and accordingly, in the ensuing 
year, began to put his project in execution. He 
gave out that he also was a prophet sent of God, 
having a joint commission with Mohammed to re- 
call mankind from idolatry to the worship of the 
true God. He moreover aped his model so closely 
as to publish written revelations like the Koran, 
pretended to have been derived from the same 
source. Having succeeded in gaining a consider- 
able party from the tribe of Honeifa, he at length 
began to put himself still more nearly upon a level 
with the prophet of Medina, and even went so fai 
as to propose to Mohammed a partnership in his 
spiritual supremacy. His letter commenced thus : 
" From Moseilama, the apostle of God, to Mo- 
hammed, the apostle of God. Now let the earth 
be half mine and half thme." But the latter, 
feeling himself too firmly established to stand in 
need of an associate, deigned to return him only the 
following reply : " From Mohammed, the apostle 
of God, to Moseilama, the liar. The earth is 
God's : he giveth the same for inheritance unto 
such of his servants as he pleaseth ; and the happy 
issue shall attend those who fear him." During 
the few months that Mohammed lived after this 
revolt, Moseilama continued, on the whole, to gain 
ground, and became, at length, so formidable 
as to occasion extreme anxiety to the prophet 
now rapidly sinking under the effects of his dis 
case. An expedition under the command of 


Galecl, " the Sword of God," was ordered out to 
suppress the rival sect, headed by the spurious 
apostle, and the bewildered imagination of Mo- 
hammed, in his moments of delirium, was fre- 
quently picturing to itself the results of the engage- 
ment between his faithful Moslems and these da- 
ring apostates. 

The army of Caled returned victorious. Mo- 
seilama himself and ten thousand of his followers 
were left dead on the field ; while the rest, con- 
vinced by the shining evidence of truth that gleamed 
from the swords of the conquerors, renounced their 
3rrors, and fell quietly back into the bosom of the 
Mohammedan church. Several other insurgents 
of similar pretences, but of minor consequence, 
were crushed in like manner in tlie early stages ol 
their defection. 



The Religion of the Prophetjirmly established — Tlie principal Countnet 
subjected by him — The effects of the Poison make mlarmins: fnroads 
upon his Constitution — Perceives his End approaching — 
for the lastTime in Public — His last Illness and Death — The Moslerrvt 
scarcely persuaded that their Prophet was dead — Tumult appeased 
by Abubeker — The Prophet buried at Medina — The Story of the hang- 
ing Coffin false. 

We have now reached the period at which the 
rehgion of Mohammed may be considered to have 
become permanently established. The conquest 
of Mecca and of the Koreish had been, in fact, 
the signal for the submission of the rest of Arabia ; 
and though several of the petty tribes offered, for a 
time, the show of resistance to the prophet's arms, 
they were all eventually subdued. Between the 
taking ^f Mecca and the period of his death, 
somewhat more than three years elapsed. In that 
short period he had destroyed the idols of Arabia ; 
had extended his conquests to the borders of the 
Greek and Persian empires ; had rendered his 
name formidable to those once mighty kingdoms ; 
had tried his arms against the disciplined troops of 
the former, and defeated them in a desperate en- 
counter at Muta. His throne was now firmly es- 
tablished ; and an impulse given to the Arabian na- 
tions, which induced them to invade, and enabled 
them to conquer, a large portion of the globe. In- 
dia, Persia, the Greek empire, the whole of Asf»» 


Minor, Egypt, Barbary, and Spain, were eventually- 
reduced by their victorious arms. Mohammed 
tiimself did not indeed live to see such mighty 
conquests achieved, but he commenced the train 
which resuhed in this wide-spread dominion, and 
before his death had estabhshed over the whole 
of Arabia, and some parts of Asia, the religion 
which he had devised. 

And now, having arrived at the sixty-third yeai 
of his age, and the tenth of the Hejira, A. D. 632, 
the fatal effects of the poison, which had been so 
long rankling in his veins, began to discover them- 
selves more and more sensibly, and to operate with 
alarming virulence. Day by day he visibly de- 
clined, and it was evident that his life was hasten- 
ing to a close. For some time previous to the 
event, he was conscious of its approach, and is 
said to have viewed and awaited it with charac- 
teristic firmness. The third day before his disso- 
lution, he ordered himself to be carried to the 
mosque, that he might, for the last time, address 
his followers, and bestow upon them his parting 
prayers and benedictions. Being assisted to mount 
the pulpit, he edified his brethren by the pious 
tenor of his dying counsels, and in his own ex- 
ample taught a lesson of humility and penitence, 
such as we shall scarcely find inculcated in the 
precepts of the Koran. " If there be any man," 
said the apostle, " whom I have unjustly scourged, 
I submit my own back to the lash of retaliation. 
Have I aspersed the reputation of any Mussulman I 
let him proclaim my faults in the face of the con- 


gregation. Has any one been de?*^oiled of his 
goods ? the little that I possess sb/ill compensate 
the principal and the interest of the debt." — 
" Yes," replied a voice from the crowd, " thou 
owest me three drachms of silver." Mohammed 
heard the complaint, satisfied the demand, and 
thanked his creditor, that he had accused him in 
this world rather than at the day of judgment. He 
then set his slaves at liberty, seventeen men and 
eleven women ; directed the order of his funeral ; 
strove to allay the lamentations of his weeping 
friends, and waited the approach of death. He 
did not expressly nominate a successor, a step 
which would have prevented the altercations that 
afterward came so near to crushing in its infancy 
the religion and the empire of the Saracens ; but 
his appointment of Abubeker to supply his place 
in the function of public prayer and the other ser- 
vices of the mosque, seemed to intimate indirectly 
the choice of the prophet. This ancient and faith- 
ful friend, accordingly, after much contention, be- 
came the first Caliph of the Saracens,* though his 
reign was closed by his death at the end of two 
years. The death of Mohammed was hastened 
by the force of a burning fever, which deprived him 
at times of the use of reason. In one of these pa- 
roxysms of delirium, he demanded pen and paper, 
that he might compose or dictate a divine book. 
Omar, w^ho was watching at his side, refused his 

♦ Saracen is the name bestowed by the tmciem foreign writeirs upon 
tbe Arabs. They may have tolerated the title, but it is not one of their 
<wn imposition or of their liking. 


request, lest the expiring prophet might dictate 
something which should suspersede the Koran. 
Others, however, expressed a great desire that the 
book might be written ; and so warm a dispute 
arose in the chamber of the apostle, that he was 
forced to reprove their unbecoming vehemence. 
The writing was not performed, and many of his 
followers have mourned the loss of the sublime re- 
velations which his dying visions might have be- 
queathed to them. His favourite wife Ayesha 
hung over her husband in his last moments, sus- 
taining his drooping head upon her knee, as he lay 
stretched upon the carpet, watching with trem- 
bling anxiety his changing countenance, and lis- 
tening to the last broken sounds of his voice. His 
disease, as it drew towards its termination, was at- 
tended at intervals with most excruciating pains, 
which he constantly ascribed to the fatal morsel 
taken at Chaibar ; and as the mother of Bashar, 
the companion who had died upon the spot from 
the same cause, stood by his side, he exclaimed 
" O mother of Bashar, the cords of my heart are 
now breaking of the food which I ate with your 
son at Chaibar." In his conversation with those 
around him, he mentioned it as a special preroga- 
tive granted to him, that the angel of death was 
not allowed to take his soul till he had respect- 
fully asked of him his permission, and this per- 
mission he condescendingly granted. Recovering 
from a swoon into which the violence of his pains 
had thrown him, he raised his eyes towards the 
roof of the house, and with faltering accents ex- 


claimed, " O God! pardon my sins. Yes, I come 
among my fellow-labourers on high !" His face 
was then sprinkled with water, and that by his 
own feeble hand, when he shortly after expired. 

The city, and more especially the house, of the 
prophet, became at once a scene of sorrowful, but 
confused, lamentation. Some of his followers 
could not believe that he was dead. " How can 
he be dead, our witness, our intercessor, our me- 
diator with God ? He is not dead. Like Moses 
and .lesus he is wrapped in a holy trance, and 
speedily will he return to his faithful people." The 
evidence of sense was disregarded, and Omar, 
brandishing his scimitar, threatened to strike off 
the heads of the infidels who should affirm that 
the prophet was no more. The tumult was at 
length appeased by the moderation of Abubeker. 
'' Is it Mohammed," said he, " or the God of Moham- 
med, whom ye worship ? The God of Mohammed 
liveth for ever, but the apostle was a mortal lik« 
ourselves, and, according to his own prediction, he 
hath experienced the common fate of mortality."* 

The prophet's remains were deposited at Me- 
dina, in the very room in which he breathed his 
last, the floor being removed to make way for his 
sepulchre, and a simple and unadorned monument 
some time after erected over them. The house 

* " Mohammed is no more than an apostle : the other apostles hav 
tlrpady deceased before him : if he die, therefore, or be slain, will y 
lurn back o your heels ?"— Koran, ch. iii. 

" Verily, thou, O Mohammed, shalt die, and they shall die ; and ye 
Bball debate the matter [idolatry] with one another before your Lord at tb« 
day of resurrection." — Ibid. ch. xxxix. 


itself has long since mouldered or been demo- 
lished, but the place of the prophet's interment is 
still made conspicuous to the superstitious reve- 
rence of his disciples. The story of his relics be- 
ing suspended in the air, by the power of load- 
stone, in an iron coffin, and that too at Mecca, 
instead of Medina, is a mere idle fabrication ; as 
his tomb at the latter place has been visited by 
millions of pilgrims, and from the authentic ac- 
counts of travellers who have visited both these 
holy cities in disguise, we learn tliat it is con- 
structed of plain mason work, fixed without eleva* 
mm upon the surface of the ground. 



ke/leetionsvpon ths extraordinary Career of Mohammed — Descrvpttom 
of his Person-' General View and Estimate of his Character. 

Thus closed the earthly career of one of the 
most remarkable men, and of decidedly the most suc- 
cessful impostor, that ever lived. By the force of 
a vast ambition, giving direction to native talents of 
a superior order, he had risen from small begin- 
nings to the pinnacle of power among the Arab 
nation, and before his death had commenced one 
of the greatest revohitions known in the history of 
man. He laid the foundation of an empire, which, 
in the short space of eighty years, extended its 
sway over more kingdoms and countries than Rome 
had mastered in eight hundred. And when we 
pass from the political to the religious ascendency 
which he gained, and consider the rapid growth, 
the wide diffusion, and the enduring permanence 
of the Mohammedan imposture, we are still more 
astonished. Indeed, in this, as in every other in- 
stance where the fortunes of an individual are 
entirely disproportioned to the means employed, 
and surpass all reasonable calculation, we are 
forced to resolve the problem into the special pro- 
vidence of God. Nothing short of this could have 
secured the achievement of such mighty results ; 
and we must doubtless look upon Mohammedanism 


at the present day as a standing monument of the 
mysterious wisdom of Jehovah, designed to com- 
pass ends which are beyond the grasp of human 
minds, at least till they are accomplished. 

As to his person, Mohammed, according to his 
Arabic biographers, was of a middling stature and 
of a florid complexion. His head was large and 
well formed ; his hair smooth and of a glossy 
black ; his eye of the same colour ; and so un- 
commonly vigorous and robust was his frame, that 
at the time of his death scarcely any of the marks 
or infirmities of age had appeared upon him. His 
features were large, yet regular ; his cheeks full ; 
his forehead prominent ; his eyebrows long and 
smooth, mutually approaching each other, yet not 
so as to meet ; and between them was a vein, of 
which the pulse was quicker and higher than usual 
whenever he was angry. He had an aquiline 
nose and a large mouth, witli teeth of singular 
brilliancy and somewhat singular form, as they 
were pointed like the teeth of a saw, and placed 
at some distance from each other, though still in 
beautiful order. When he laughed he discovered 
them, and they appeared, if tradition may be cre- 
dited, like hail-stones or little white pearls. Even 
his laughter is said to have been full of majesty, 
and in his smile there was such a peculiar contrac- 
tion of the muscles of the mouth and cheeks, and 
such an expression given to the countenance, as 
rendered it irresistibly attractive. In his later 
years he became corpuleut ; but he had always » 


free, open air, a majestic port, and a most engaging 

The Moslem writers are unbounded in their eu- 
logy of the prophet's character as a man. Even 
those of them who treat as it deserves the foolish 
fiction of his having been taken by two angels in 
his childhood, his body laid open by a knife, his 
heart taken out, and pressed, and wrung, till its 
original corruptions oozed out in the form of large 
black fetid drops, when it was again replaced, pu- 
rified and perfect, in his bosom, and the wound 
miraculously healed, still maintain that his moral 
qualities were such as to lift him quite out of the 
grade of the common race of men. But here the 
history of his life and the pages of the Koran will 
enable us to make those abatements which, in re- 
spect to his personal accomplishments, we can only 
suspect ought to be made. His followers extol 
his piety, veracity, justice, liberality, humility, and 
self-denial, in all which they do not scruple to 
propose him as a perfect pattern to the faithful. 
His charity, in particular, they say, was so con- 
spicuous, that he seldom had any money in his 
house, keeping no more than was just sufficient to 
maintain his family, and frequently sparing even a 
part of his own provisions to supply the necessi- 
ties of the poor. All this may have been so, but 
in forming our judgment of the exhibition of these 
moral traits, we cannot forget that he had private 
ends to answer, and we thus find it impossible to 
distinguish between the generous impulses of a 


kind and noble heart, and the actings of an inte- 
rested policy. It is no unusual thing for a strong 
ruling passion to bring every other passion, even 
the most opposite and discordant, into harmony 
and subserviency to its dictates. A.mbition wili 
sometimes control avarice, and the love of plea 
sure not unfrequently govern both. A man may 
affoni to be just and generous, and to act the pari 
of a very saint, when he has no less a motive be- 
fore him til an to gain the character of a prophet 
and the powf^r of a monarch. If Mohammed le- 
aily evinced the virtues of a prophet, he doubtless 
had his eye upon *' a prophet's reward." But we 
would not be gratuitously harsh in our judgment 
of the impoiitor's moral qualities. We think it by 
no means improbable, that his disposition was natu- 
rally free, open, noble, engaging, perhaps magnani- 
mous. We doubt not injustice may have been 
done by Christian writers to the man in their un- 
measured detestation of the impostor. But as long 
as we admit the truth of history, as it relates to 
Islamism and iis founder, it is plain, that if he were 
originally possessed of praiseworthy attributes, 
they ceased to distinguish him as he advanced in 
life ; for his personal degeneracy kept pace witli 
his success, and his delinquencies became more 
numerous, gross, and glaring, tJie longer he lived. 

Of his intellectual endowniejits, his followers 
speak in the same strain of higJi panegyric. His 
genius, soaring above the need of culture, unaided 
by the lights of learning, despising books, bore 
him by its innate strength into the kindred subli- 


mities of prophecy and poetry, and enabled him 
in the Koran, without models or masters, to speak 
with an eloquence unparalleled in any human pro- 
duction. But here it has escaped them, that they 
praise the prophet at the expense of his oracles ; 
that whatever credit, on the score of authorship, 
they give to him, so much they detract from the 
evidence of its inspiration ; since Mohammed him- 
self constantly appeals to his revelations as pro- 
ceeding from an " illiterate prophet," and therefore 
carrying with them, in their unequalled style, the 
clearest evidence of being, not a human, but a di- 
vine composition. On the point, however, of the 
literary merits of the Koran, and of the mental 
endowments of its author as evinced by it, the 
reader will judge for himself. We can more rea- 
dily assent to their statements when they inform us, 
that his intellect was acute and sagacious, his me- 
mory retentive, his knowledge of human nature, 
improved as it was by travel and extended inter- 
course, profound and accurate, and that in the arts 
of msinuation and address he was without a rival. 
Neither are we able to gainsay their accounts 
when they represent him as having been affable, 
rather than loquacious ; of an even cheerful tem- 
per ; pleasant and familiar in conversation ; and 
possessing the art, in a surprising degree, of at- 
taching his friends and adherents to his person. 

On the whole, from a candid survey of his life 
and actions, we may safely pronounce Mohammed 
to have been by nature a man of a superior cast 
of character, and very considerably in advance of 


ahe age in which he lived. But the age and the 
countiy in which he arose and shone were rude 
and barbarous ; and the standard which would 
determine him great among the roving tribes of 
Arabia might have left him little more than a 
common man in the cultivated climes of Europe. 
Men's characters are moulded as much by their 
circumstances and fortunes as by their native ge- 
nius and bias. Under another combination of ac- 
cidents, the founder of the Moslem faith and of the 
empire of the Saracens might have sunk to obli- 
vion with the anonymous millions of his race, as 
the drops of rain are absorbed into the sands of 
his native deserts. His whole history makes it 
evident, that fanaticism, ambition, and lust were 
his master-passions ; of which the former appears 
to have been gradually eradicated by the growing 
strength of the two last. An enthusiast by nature, 
he became a hypocrite by policy ; and as the vio- 
lence of his corrupt propensities increased, he 
scrupled not to gratify them at the expense of 
truth, justice, friendship, and humanity. It is 
right, indeed, in forming our estimate of his con- 
duct in its most repulsive respects, that we should 
make allowance for the ignorance, the prejudices, 
the manners, the laws of the people among whom 
he lived. A heathen people cannot be fairly 
judged by the rules of Christian morality. In 
the mere circumstance of multiplying his wives, 
he followed the common example of his country- 
men, with whom polygamy had been, from the 
earliest ages, a prevailing practice. And so, though 
47—11 N 


we cannot justify, yet we may in some measure 
palliate, the murder of Caab and Sophyan, if we 
supposed the prophet to have viewed them as ene- 
mies from whom his own life was in jeopardy ; foi 
in this no violence was done to the common senti- 
ments of the Arab race. Even at the present day, 
among the prophet's disciples all over the East, 
no trait is more common or more revolting than 
recklessness oflife^ which is doubtless to be ascribed 
as much to national habits as to a native cruelty or 
ferocity of disposition. We must, indeed, think 
but little of the morality of such a people, and 
must behold with indignation a pretended prophet, 
while professing to purify the moral code of his 
countrymen, continuing still in the practice of some 
of the worst of its tenets. Here, in fact, our hea- 
viest condemnation falls upon Mohammed. He 
did not observe those rules of morality which he 
himself laid down, and which he enforced upon 
others hy such terrible sanctions. No excuse can 
be offered for the impostor on this score. He 
abused his claims as a prophet to screen the guilty 
excesses of his priv^ate life, and under the pretence 
of a special revelation, dispensing him from the 
laws imposed by his own religion, had the female 
sex abandoned without reserve to his desires. 
" O prophet, we have allowed thee thy wives unto 
whom thou hast given their dower, and also the 
slaves which thy right hand possesseth, of the 
booty which God hath granted r.hee ; and the 
daughters of thy uncle and the daughters of thy 
aunts, both on thy father's side and on thy mother's 


tide^ who have fled with thee from Mecca, and any 
other believing woman, if she give herself unto the 
prophet ; in case the prophet desireth to take her 
to wife. This is a pecuHar privilege granted unto 
thee, above the rest of the true believers."* The 
exceedingly liberal grant thus made to the prophet 
on the score of matrimonial privilege may be con- 
trasted with the allowance made to his followers. 
" Take in marriage of such women as please you 
two, three, or four ; and not more. But if ye fear 
that ye cannot act equitably towards so many, 
marry one only."t 

Respect to decorum forbids our entering into de- 
tails relative to this part of Mohammed's conduct 
and character. But from what has been already 
adduced, the reader cannot have failed to perceive 
how completely the prophet's imposture was made 
an engine for promoting the gratification of sensual 
passion. One of the grossest instances of his un- 
hallowed abuse of the claims to which he pre- 
tended occurs in the histoiy of his intercourse with 
Mary, an Egyptian slave. The knowledge of his 
illicit amours with this " possession of his right 
hand" having come to the ears, or rather to the 
eyes, of one of his lawful wives, who thereupon 
reproached him most bitterly for his infidelity, he 
went so far, in order to pacify her, as to promise 
with an oath never to be guilty of a repetition of 
the offence. But the infirmity of nature having 
not long after triumphed again over the strength of 
his resolution, he had recourse to his revelation* 

♦ Koran, ch. xxxiii. t Cb. ir. 


to cover the scandal of this shameless lapse. Thtt 
expedient now resorted to forms one of the black 
est stains upon the pages of the Koran, and upon 
the character of its author. It was nothing less 
than a pretended absolution of the prophet from 
the obligation of his oath. " O prophet, why 
boldest thou that to be prohibited which God hath 
allowed thee, seeking to please thy wives ; since 
God is inclined to forgive, and merciful ? God hath 
allowed you the dissolution of your oaths, and God 
»s your Master."* Here is an alleged dispensa- 
tion of the prophet, which must be construed as 
actually legalizing perjury on the part of a pro- 
fessed messenger of truth ; one too who thus in- 
structs his followers : " Perform your covenant 
with God, when ye enter into covenant with 
him, and violate not your oaths after the ratifica- 
tion thereof; since ye have made God a witness 
over you. Verily, God knoweth that which ye do. 
And be not like unto her who undoeth that which 
she hath spun, untwisting it after she hath twisted 
it strongly." " Therefore take not your oaths be- 
tween you deceitfully, lest your foot slip after it 
hath been steadfastly fixed, and ye taste evil in 
this life, and suffer a grievous punishment in the 
life to come."t This is but too fair a specimen 
of the general character of the Koran. By far 
the greater part of its contents were fabricated to 
answer particular purposes, which he could effect 
in no other way ; and this was an expedient which 
never failed. If any new enterprise was to be 

• Koran, ch. Ixri t Oh x^ 


undertaken, any new objections answered, anydiifi- 
culty to be solved, any disturbance among his fol- 
lowers to be hushed, or any offence to be removed, 
immediate recourse was had to Gabriel, and a new 
revelation, precisely adapted to meet the necessi- 
ties of the case, was granted. As an inevitable 
consequence, a vast number of variations and con- 
tradictions, too palpable to be denied, occur in the 
course of the book. His commentators and dis- 
ciples acknowledge the fact, but account for it by 
saying, that whenever a subsequent revelation 
plainly contradicts a former, the former is to be 
considered as having been revoked or repealed by 
the latter ; and above a hundred and fifty verses 
are enumerated as having been thus set aside by 
after-discoveries of the divine will. In tms they 
are countenanced by the words of the impostor 
himself. " Whatever verse we shall abrogate, or 
cause thee to forget, we will bring a better than it, 
or one like unto it."* " When we substitute in the 
Koran an abrogating verse in lieu of a verse abro- 
gated (and God best knoweth the fitness of that 
which he revealeth), the infidels say, Thou art 
only H forger of these verses : but the greater part 
of them know not the truth from falsehood."! 
When this feature of their religion is objected to 
modern Mohammedans, as it was by Henry Mar- 
tyn in his controversy with them, they reply, that 
" this objection is altogether futile ; for the pre- 
cepts of God are always delivered with a special 
regard to the necessities of his servants. And 

♦ Koran, ch. U. t Ch. xvl. 


there can be no doubt that these must vary with 
the varying exigences of the times in which they 
are delivered. The divine Lawgiver may here 
be considered as the spiritual physician of his 
people ; who, like a temporal physician, prescribes 
such regimen and medicines as are most likely to 
suit the wants of his patient."* The pupil here is 
certainly worthy of the master, when they both 
agree in teaching, that the grand principles of mo- 
rality are not eternal and immutable, growing out 
of the very nature of the relation subsisting between 
the Creator and his creatures, but are mere arbi- 
trary rules, subject to be relaxed, modified, or dis- 
pensed with, as circumstances may dictate. See- 
ag that this pitiful device of feigning dispensa- 
tions and abrogations of particular duties subjects 
the immutable counsels of the Almighty to the 
charge of weakness and fickleness, it is surprising 
that his disciples should have been blinded by so 
flimsy a disguise ; yet such is evidently the fact. 
And it adds another proof of the truth of the re- 
mark, that as there is no error or absurdity in reli 
gion too monstrous to be conceived or broached, 
80 there is none too gross to be imposed upon the 
credulity of others. 

» Lee's Translation of H. Martyn's Controversial TraeU. 



Aeemint of the PropkeVs Wives — Cadijah — Ayesha — Hqfsa — Zemab-^ 
Sqfya — Ris Concubines —Singular Precepts in the Koran respecting 
the Wives of Mohammed— His comparative Treatment of Jews and 
Christians -Predictions of the Prophet alleged by Mohammedans to 
be contained in the sacred Scriptures. 

As the subject of women occupies a prominent 
place in the Koran, so in a omplete history of the 
prophet's life his numerous wives, of which the 
number is variously stated from fifteen to twenty- 
one, form a topic of too much interest to be 

During the lifetime of Cadijah, it does not ap- 
pear that she was ever pained with the sight or 
suspicion of a rival. After her death, when at 
length his reputation as a prophet had become es- 
tablished, and his authority too firmly rooted to be 
shaken, the restraints which policy had imposed 
upon passion were gradually thrown off, and the 
most unlimited license in this respect marked his 
subsequent conduct. 

His third and best beloved wife was Ayesha, 
the daughter of Abubeker, whom he married in 
the first year of the Hejira. Vague rumours of 
conjugal infidelity have cast a stain upon the cha- 
racter of Ayesha not entirely eflfaced even at the 
present day. They were not believed, however, 
by the prophet, and the divine acquittal in the 
twenty-fourth chapter of the Koran has <lone mucli 


towards shielding her fame from reproach. " As 
to the party among you, who have published the 
falsehood concerning Ayesha — every man of them 
shall be punished according to the injustice of 
which he hath been guilty ; and he among them 
who hath undertaken to aggravate the same shall 
suffer a grievous punishment. Did not the faith- 
ful men and the faithful women say, This is a mani- 
fest falsehood ? Have they produced four witnesses 
thereof? Wherefore, since they have not pro- 
duced the witnesses, they are surely liars in the 
sight of God. Had it not been for the indulgence 
of God towards you, and his mercy in this world, 
and in that which is to come, verily a grievous 
punishment had been inflicted on you for the ca- 
lumny which ye have spread ; when ye published 
that with your tongues, and spoke that with your 
mouths, of which ye had no knowledge ; and es- 
teemed it to be light, whereas it was a matter of 
importance in the sight of God."* 

Ayesha was married — such is the surprising phy- 
sical precocity peculiar to an eastern climate — at 
the early age of nine ; and survived her husband 
forty-eight years. Her memory is held in great ve- 
neration by the Moslems, who have bestowed upon 
her the title oi Prophetess, and Mother of the Faith- 
ful, probably from the circumstance of her being 
much resorted to after her husband's death, as an 
expositor of the doubtful points of the law ; an of- 
fice which she performed by giving the sense which 

• Koran, efe. xi» 


ghe had heard the prophet affix to them in his life- 
time. Her expositions, together with those of 
Mohammed's first ten converts, form what is 
called the Sonnah, or the Authentic Traditions, of 
the professors of Islam, which bear a striking re- 
semblance to the traditions of the Jews. Ayesha 
was the inveterate enemy of Ali, the rival candi- 
date with Abubeker to the honour of being the 
prophet's successor ; and when at last he attained 
to that dignity, she appeared in arms against him. 
Her expedition was indeed unsuccessful, yet she 
found means, some time after, to excite a defec- 
tion among Ali's followers, which finally resulted 
in the ruin of himself and his house. 

Hafsa. the daughter of Omar, was next in fa- 
vour with the prophet. To her, as being the eldest 
of his wives, he committed the Chest of his apos- 
tleship, containing the original copies of his pre- 
tended revelations, from which the volume of the 
Koran was composed after his death, by Abubeker. 
She died at the age of sixty-six. 

Zeinab, another of his wives, was originally the 
wife of his servant Zeid ; upon whom, as we learn 
from the Koran, God had bestowed the grace to 
become one of the earliest converts to the true 
faith. The circumstances which led to her be- 
coming the wife of the prophet, form a story worth 
relating. Mohammed, having occasion, one day, 
to call at the house of Zeid upon some matter of 
business, and not finding him at home, accidentally 
cast his eyes on Zeinab his wife. Being a wo- 
man of distinguished beauty, the prophet was so 



Bmitten with her charms at first sight, that he 
?ould not forbear exclaiming, " Praised be God, 
who turneth the hearts of men as he pleaseth P 
and thenceforth became violently in love with her 
Zeid, when made acquainted with the circum- 
stance, was thrown into great perplexity. His af- 
fection for his wife and his wish to retain her 
were coimterbalanced by his sense of obligation to 
ois master, who had not only freed him from ser- 
vitude, but had also publicly adopted him as his 
son and heir, by a religious ceremony at the black 
stone of the Caaba. Upon mature reflection he 
determined to part with Zeinab in favour of his be- 
nefactor, whom he privately acquainted with his 
intention, at the same time giving out in public 
that he no longer retained any affection for her, ii> 
order to pave the way for a divorce. Mohammed, 
aware of the scandal that would ensue among his 
people, from his taking to his bed one who stood 
to him in the relation of a daughter, made a feint 
of dissuading him from his purpose, and endea- 
voured to suppress the violence of his passion. 
But finding the flame which consumed him uncon- 
querable, a chapter of the Koran came seasonably 
to his relief, which at once removed all impedi- 
ments in the way of a union. " And remember, 
when thou saidst to him unto whom God had been 
gracious "/.eid), and on whom thou also hadst 
conferrea lavours, keep thy wife to thyself and fear 
God ; and thou didst conceal that in thy mind (i. e. 
thine affection to Zeinab) which God had deter- 
tnined to discover, and didst fear men ; whereas it 

LIFlfi OF MOHAMM£D« 171 

was more just that thou shoulJst fear God. But 
when Zeid had determined the matter concerning 
her, and had resolved to divorce her, we joined 
her in marriage unto thee, lest a crime should be 
charged on the true believers in marrying the wives 
of their adopted sons : and the command of God 
is to be performed. No crime is to be charged 
on the prophet as to what God hath allowed him."* 
Here the Most High is represented not only as 
sanctioning the marriage, but as conveying a gen- 
tle rebuke to the prophet, that he should so long 
have abstained from the enjoyment of this favour 
out of reg^ard to public sentiment, as though he 
feared men rather than God! Zeinab hereupon 
became the wife of this most favoured of mortals, 
and lived with him in great affection to the time 
of his death ; always glorying over her associates, 
that whereas they had been married to Mohammed 
by their parents and kindred, she had been 
united to hun by God himself, who dwells above 
the seven heavens ! 

Another of his wives, Safya, was a Jewess. Of 
ner nothing remarkable is related, except that she 
once complained to her husband of being thus re- 
proached by her companions : " O thou Jewess, 
the daughtei of a Jew and of a Jewess." To 
which the prophet answered, " Canst thou not say, 
Aaron is my father, Moses is my rnicle, and Mo- 
hammed is my husband?" But in reference to 
Jiese insulting taunts, an admonition was conveyed 

*■ Koran, ch. xxxiii 


to the offenders from a higher source than the pro- 
phet himself. " O true believers, let not men 
laugh other men to scorn, who peradventure may 
be better than themselves ; neither let women laugh 
other women to scorn, who may possibly be bet- 
ter than themselves. Neither defame one another, 
nor call one another by opprobious appellations."* 

In addition to his wives, the harem of the pro- 
phet contained a number of concubines, among 
whom Mary, the Egyptian, was his favourite. By 
her he had a son, Ibrahim (Abraham), who died 
in infancy, to the unspeakable grief of the prophet 
and his disciples. He had no children by any of 
the rest of his wives except Cadijah, who was the 
mother of eight — four sons and four daughters ; but 
most of these died in early life, none of them sur- 
viving their father except Fatima, the wife of Ali, 
and she only sixty days. 

The following passages from the Koran evince 
that not the prophet only was an object of the di- 
vine care, beneficence, and guidance, but that his 
wives also shared in the same kind providence, and 
that whatever instructions or admonitions their 
frailties might require were graciously bestowed 
upon them. From an infirmity not uncommon to 
the sex, they had become, it appears, more devoted 
to the decoration of their persons than was credit- 
able for the wives of a holy prophet, and had de- 
manded of him a larger allowance on the score of 
dress than he deemed it prudent to grant. 1 hef 

• Koran, ch xlix 


are thus rebuked : " O prophet, say unto thy 
wives, If ye seek this present life and the pomp 
thereof, come, I will make a handsome provision 
for you, and I will dismiss you with an honourable 
dismission : but if ye seek God and his apostle, 
and the life to come, verily God hath prepared for 
such of you as work righteousness a great re- 
ward."* " O wives of the prophet, ye are not as 
other women : if ye fear God, be not too com- 
plaisant in speech, lest he should covet in whose 
heart is a disease of incontinence ; but speak the 
speech which is convenient. And sit still in your 
houses ; and set not out yourselves with the osten- 
tation of the former time of ignorance, and observe 
the appointed times of prayer, and give alms ; and 
obey God and his apostle ; for God desireth only 
to remove from you the abomination of vanity, 
since ye are the household of the prophet, and to 
purify you by a perfect purification."t 

The prophet interdicted to all his wives the pri- 
vilege of marrying again after his death, and 
though some of them were then young, they scru- 
pulously obeyed his command, delivered to them, 
like every thing else in the Koran, in the form of 
a mandate of heaven, and lived and died in widow- 
hood. The passage in which this severe edict is 
found is a curiosity, and will doubtless lead the 
reader to suspect that it was prompted by a spirit 
of mean jealousy, the effects of which he aimed 
to perpetuate when he was no more. It is pre 

* Koran, ch. xxxiii. t Ibid 


faced by some wholesome cautions to his fbllowert 
respecting the etiquette to be observed in their in- 
tercourse with the prophet and his household. 

" O true believers, enter not into the houses ot 
the prophet, unless it be permitted you to eat 
meat with him, without waiting his convenient 
lime ; but when ye are invited, then enter. And 
when ye shall have eaten, disperse yourselves ; and 
stay not to enter into familiar discourse ; for this 
incommodeth the prophet. He is ashamed to bid 
you depart, but God is not ashamed of the truth. 
And when ye ask of the prophet's wives what ye 
may have occasion for, ask it of them behind a 
curtain. This will be more pure for your hearts 
and their hearts. Neither is it fit for you to give 
any uneasiness to the apostle of God, or to marry 
his wives after him for ever ; for this would be a 
grievous thing in the sight of God."* 

In the outset of his career, Mohammed appears 
to have been more favourably disposed towards the 
Jews than the Christians. This is inferred fiom 
his enjoying with them a common descent from 
the patriarch Abraham ; from his agreement with 
them in the fundamental doctrine of the divine 
unity ; and from his proffering to make Jerusalem 
the point of pilgrimage and of the Kebla to his fol- 
lowers. But conceiving a pique against them 
about the time of his entrance into Medina, he 
thenceforward became their inveterate enemy, and 
'n «iil his wars pursued them with a more relentles* 

* Koran, cb. xxxiii 


severity than he showed towards any other people. 
Thus this descendant of Ishmael, without intend- 
ing it, made good the declaration of holy writ re- 
specting the antagonist seeds of Hagar and of Sa- 
rah. " For it is written that Abraham had two 
sons, the one by a bond-maid the other by a free 
woman. But he who was of the bond-woman 
was born after the flesh ; but he of the free woman 
was by promise. But as then he that was born 
after the flesh persecuted him that was born after 
the spirit, even so it is now."* Their opposition 
to him can easily be accounted for on the score of 
national and religious prejudice. And the oppro- 
bnous name which they gave to the corrupt system 
of the heresiarch, tended still more to provoke his 
indignation. For while he professed to be a re 
storer of the true primitive religion which God com- 
municated to Abraham, and Abiaham to his sor 
Ishmael, and which the prophet denominated Islam, 
or Islamism, from a word signifying to devote or 
dedicate to religion, the Jews, by a transposition of 
letters, called the new creed Ismaelism, from the 
prophet's progenitor, and thus cast the greatest 
possible reproach on the bastard faith of their 
enemy. Their effrontery Mohammed neither for- 
got nor forgave. Still, both Jews and Christians 
were admitted to protection in ordinary cases on 
the payment of a specified tribute. 

Towards the Christians, though the Koran, and 
all who embrace it, breathe the most inveterate ma 
lice and the most sovereign contempt against the 

* Gal. ch. iv. 


** dogs" and " infidels" who profess the Gospel faith, 
yet rather more forbearance is exercised than to- 
wards the Jews ; and some of the Moslems will 
grant, that Christianity, next to their own, is the 
best religion in the world, particularly as held by 
Unitarians. Yet Mohammed, in the Koran, loses 
no opportunity to pour his revilings indiscriminately 
upon both. "The Jews and the Christians say, 
We are the children of God and his beloved. An- 
swer, Why, therefore, doth he punish you for your 
sins ?"* " They say. Verily, none shall enter pa 
radise, except they who are Jews or Christians : 
this is their wish. Say, Produce your proof of 
this, if ye speak truth. The Jews say, The 
Christians are grounded on nothing ; and the Chris- 
tians say, The Jews are grounded on nothing : yet 
they both read the Scriptures."! " O ye, to whom 
the Scriptures have been given, why do ye dispute 
concerning Abraham? Abraham was neither a 
Jew nor a Christian ; but he was of the true reli- 
gion, one resigned unto God, and was not of the 
number of idolaters."^ 

The religion of the Koran tolerates Christian 
churches in places where they have been anciently 
founded, but permits them not to be reared on new 
foundations. Christians may repair the walls and 
roofs of their places of worship, but are not 
allowed to lay a stone in a new place consecrated 
to the site of a holy building ; nor, if fire or any 
other accident should destroy the superstructure, 
are they suffered to renew the foundations, so as 

* Koran, ch. ▼. t Ch. ii % Oh. iii 


to erect another building. The consequence isj 
that Christian churches, in the Mohammedan do* 
minions, must necessarily at lengtli sink to ruin, 
and vast numbers of them have already gone en- 
tirely to decay. In the great fires which happened 
in Galata and Constantinople in 1660, numerous 
Christian churches and chapels were reduced to 
ashes, and when the piety and zeal of their vota- 
ries had re-edified and almost completed the great- 
est number of them, a public order was issued that 
they should all be again demolished, it being judged 
contrary to Turkish law to permit the restoration 
of churches where nothing but the mere foundation 

The fact may be here adverted to, in drawing 
our sketch to a close, that Mohammed not only 
admitted the Old and New Testaments as divinely 
inspired books, though corrupted by their disciples, 
but afiirmed that they bore unequivocal prophetic 
testimony to his future mission as prophet and 
apostle : " And when Jesus, the son of Mary, said, 
O children of Israel, Verily I am the apostle of 
God sent unto you confirming the law which was 
delivered before me, and bringing good tidings of 
an apostle who shall come after me, and whose 
name shall be Ahmed (Mohammed)."* In support 
of what is here alleged, the Persian paraphrast 
quotes the words of Christ in his last address to 
his disciples : " If I go not away, the Comforter 
will not come unto you ; but if I go away, I will 
•end him unto you." This passage the Moham- 

^' ^^ * Koran, ch. Ixi. 


medan doctors unanimously teach has a direct iiv 
ference to their prophet, and is fulfilled in hii» 
only. But then, in order to make good their in- 
terpretation, they are obliged to hold that the 
Christians in their copies have corrupted the true 
reading, which, instead of Paraclete ( Comforter)^ 
is Periclyte (illustrious^ renowned)^ a word per- 
fectly synonymous with Ahmed. 

The following passage (Deut. xxxiii. 2) is also 
suborned to the support of the same bad cause : 
*' The Lord came from Sinai, and rose up from 
Mount Seir unto them; he shined forth from 
Mount Paran, and he came with ten thousand of 
his saints ; from his right hand went a fiery law for 
them." By these words, say the Moslem exposi- 
tors, is set forth the delivery of the law to Moses, 
on Mount Sinai ; of the Gospel to Jesus at Jeru- 
salem ; and of the Koran to Mohammed at Mecca. 
By Seir, they maintain that the mountains of Je- 
rusalem are meant, and by Paran, those in the 
neighbourhood of Mecca. But their geography 
will appear as lame as their divinity, when it is 
stated, that Seir was a hundred miles distant from 
Jerusalem, and Paran ^we hundred from Mecca. 
Their other glosses of this nature need no con- 

In another sense, however, wholly different 
from that intended by Mohammed or his followers, 
we doubt not that this grand impostor and his re- 
ligion are distinctly foretold in the sacred volume 
The religion promulgated, and the empire esta- 
61ished, by the author of Islam, has been too 


signal a scourge to the Church and the civilized 
world not to be entitletl to a place in the prophetic 
annunciations of the Bible. A^s the subject of the 
rise, progress, and permanence of Mohammedan- 
ism cannot be duly appreciated apart from the pre- 
dictions concerning it, we have determined to de- 
vote a portion of the Appendix to the consideration 
of the most prominent and striking of these pro- 
phecies, to which the reader will permit us to 
bespeak his attention. 




Prophecy. — Dan. vii. 8 — 26. 

(the vision.) 

i The he-goat waxed very great : and when he was strong, the gre« 

horn was broken ; and for it came up four notable ones toward the 

9. four winds of heaven. And out of one of them came fbrth a little 

horn, which waxed exceeding great toward the south and toward 

iO. the east, and toward the pleasant land. And it waxed great even to 
the host of heaven ; and it cast down someof the host and of the stars 

11. to the ground, and stamped upon them. Yea, he magnified himself 
even to the Prince of the host, and by him was the daily sacrifice 

13. taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. And 
a host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of 
transgression ; and it cast down the truth to the ground ; and it 

13. practised and prospered. Then I heard one saint speaking, and 
another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How 
long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the 
transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the 

!4. host to be trodden under foot? And he said unto me, Unto two 
thousand and three hundred days ; then shall the sanctuary be 

(the interpretation.) 

31. And the rough goat is the king (kingdom) of Grecia: and the 
great horn that is between his eyes is the first king (kingdom). 

22. Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four king- 

23. doms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power. And 
in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are 
come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding 
(Heb. making to understand, teaching) dark sentences, shall stand 

34. up. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power : 
and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, 

35. and shall destrov the mighty and the holy people. And through 
his policy also he shall cause crafl to prosper in his hand ; and ho 

* For the materials of this chapter, and occasionally for some por- 
tion of the language, the compiler acknowledges himself indebted prin- 
cipally to Faber's Sacred Calendar of Prophecy, Foster's Mahometanism 
Unveiled, and Fry's Second Advent of Christ. He has moreover given 
a minute vnd critical atibAtion to these prophecies in the original la» 


■hall magniff himself in his heart, and by peace shall deatit^ 
many : he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes ; but 
S6. he shall be broken without hand. And the rision of the evening 
and the morning which was to'd is true^ wherefore shut thou up 
the Tision ; for it shall be for many days. Dan. vii. 8 — 26. 

The prophecy of Daniel contains a prospective 
view of the providential history of the world, in- 
cluding the four great empires of antiquity, together 
with the powers which should succeed them to the 
end of time, and consummation of all things. It is 
reasonable therefore to expect, that a system of pre- 
dictions thus large upon the history of the world, 
would not omit a revolution of such magnitude and 
prominence as that occasioned by Mohammed and 
Mohammedanism. No event, moreover, has had a 
more direct and powerful bearing: upon the state of 
the Church than the establishment of this vast im- 
posture ; and as the preceding chapter contains a 
full and exact portraiture of the Papal tyranny which 
was to arise and prevail in the western portion of 
Christendom, so the present is very generally ad- 
mitted to contain a prediction of that great aposiacy 
which was destined to grow up and overwhelm the 
Church in the East. The reasons of this opinion 
we now proceed to state. 

The theatre of this prophecy is the Macedonian 
empire, founded by Alexander; from one of the 
four dismembered kingdoms of which the little 
horn of the vision was to spring up. In the vision, 
the prophet saw the first great horn of the he-goat, 
or the kingdom of Alexander, " broken ;" indicating 
that that kingdom was no longer to have a place as 
a kingdom in the eye of pro])hecy. The dominions 
of Alexander at his death were divided between 
four of his generals: Macedon and Greece in the 
isrest were assigned to Cassander; Thrace and Bi- 
thynia in the north to Lysimachus ; Egypt in the 
south to Ptolemy ; and Syria with the eastern pro- 
vinces to Seleucus. 

yer. 9. And out of one of them camejorth a htth 


4om.— A " horn," in the symbol 4 al lang^uage of pro- 
phecy, represents a civil or ecclesiastical kingdom. 
The little horn here mentioneill was to come forth 
out of one of the four notable horns or members of 
the subdivided kingdom of Alexander. The ques- 
tion has been much agitated whether Alexander 
seized and retained any portion of the Arabian penin- 
sula : the fact of his having done so may be seen in 
any map of the Macedonian empire. " The empire 
of Alexander," observes M. RoUin, " was distributed 
into four kingdoms ; of which Ptolemy had Egypt, 
Libya, Arabia, CoBlosyria, and Palestine." The dis- 
trict occupied was indeed no more than an outskirt, 
but that outskirt comprised part of the province of 
Hejaz ; that is to say, part of that very district which 
gave birth to Mohammed and his religion. — As the 
horn in the vision was a little one, so Mohammedan- 
ism in its first rise perfectly corresponded with the 
symbol. It originated with an obscure inhabitant 
of a desert corner of Asia, whose earliest converts 
were his wife, his servant, his pupil, and his friend ; 
and whose party at the end of three years scarcely 
numbered a dozen persons. 

Which waxed exceeding great toward the south, 
and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land, 
— Mohammedanism accordingly, in its primitive 
course of conquest, did presently wax exceedingly 
great ; and that in the very line marked out by the 
prophecy. Its conquests extended southward over 
the large peninsula of Arabia, over Egypt, and over 
a considerable portion of central Africa ; eastward, 
over Persia, Bokhara, and Hindostan ; and north- 
ward, over Palestine, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, 
Greece, and Tartary, the countries now forming the 
Turkish empire. " The pleasant land," or, literally, 
"the beauty," "the ornament," is an appellation 
bestowed upon the land of Judah, from its being in 
a peculiar manner the residence of the divine glory, 
the seat of worshiD. containing the city of Jerusalem 


and the temple, which were " a crown of beauty and 
.1 diadem of glory" to the nation of Israel, The ori 
i^inal word here employed is found in a parallel sense 
m Ezek. xx. 6. 15 ; "a land flowing with milk and 
ioney, which is the glory of all lands." Jerusalem 
was captured by the Saracens A. D. 637, after a 
i^iege of four months. 

Fer. 10. And it waxed great even to the host of 
r^iuven. — The " host of heaven" is but another name 
lur the multitude of stars in the firmament. But 
. >ars, in the idiom of prophecy, are a standing em- 
i.lem of ecclesiastical officers. The word " host" 
accordingly is not only applied to the priests and 
uevites performing the service of the sanctuary 
fNum. iv. 3), but to the nation of Israel as a great 
organized ecclesiastical body, or kingdom of priests. 
Ex, xii. 41. And when Christ says (Rev. i. 20), 
" the seven stars are the angels of the seven 
churches," his meaning undoubtedly is, that these 
stars are symbols of the spiritual rulers of the 
churches. The grand scope, therefore, of the pre- 
sent prophecy is, to point out a spiritual desolation, 
achieved by a hostile power suddenly attaining 
great strength, and forcibly thrusting itself into the 
body of true worshippers, with a view to their dis- 
comfiture and dispersion. 

And it cast down some of the host, and (i. e. even) of 
the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them, — As in 
the figurative language of prophecy the stars denote 
the spiritual pastors of God's church, so the violent 
dejection of such stars from heaven to earth signifies 
a compulsory apostatizing from their religion. Mo- 
hammedanism strikingly fulfilled this prophecy from 
the date of its first promulgation, when it stood up 
against the allegorical host, or the degenerate pas- 
tors of the Christian Church. Such of them as lay 
within the territories of the Greek empire were espe- 
cially given into the hand of this persecutmg super- 
stition ; but by its inroads into Africa, and Spain, 


and France, and Italy, it waxed great against the 
whole host. Of the eastern clergy, it cast some to 
the ground, or compelled them altogether to renounce 
the Christian faith. And as for those who still ad- 
hered to the form of their religion, it stamped them, 
as it were, under its feet with all the tyranny of 
brutal fanaticism. 

Ver. 11. Yea, he magnified himself even to the 
Prince of the host. — If the starry host be the pastors 
of the Church, the prince of that host must obviously 
be the Messiah. Mohammedanism has most clearly 
verified this prediction by magnifying its founder to 
a pitch of dignity and honour equal to that of Christ. 
In fact, it has set up Mohammed above Christ. The 
Arabian impostor allowed Jesus to be a prophet ; but 
he maintained that he himself was a greater pro- 
phet, and that the Koran was destined to supersede 
the Gospel. Thus did Mohammedanism magnify 
itself " even to" the Prince of the host. 

And by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and 
the place of his sanctuary was cast down, — The term 
rendered " daily sacrifice," or, literally, " the daily,^' 
" the continual," is a term frequently used respect- 
ing the daily repeated sacrifices of the Jewish tem- 
ple, t)q)ifying the death of Christ till he should come. 
Now, what this continual burnt-offering was with 
respect to Christ's first coming, are the daily offer- 
ings of prayer and praise, and all the solemnities of 
the Christian Church, as administered by a divinely 
appointed order of men. When, therefore, the 
Saracens and Turks by their victories and oppres- 
sions broke up and dispersed the churches of the 
East, and abolished the daily spiritual worship of 
God, then did the " little horn" take away the " con- 
tinual offering" established by the Prince of the 
host. But the predicted desolation was to extend 
yet farther. The place of God's sanctuary was to 
be razed to its foundation, and both the sanctuary 
ind the host for a loner course of ages to be trodden 



under foot. Accordingly, Mohammedanism began 
this appointed work by the subversion of tlie Chris- 
tian churches and altars in every stage of its pro- 
gress against the Greek empire ; and has continued 
the desolation during nearly twelve hundred years, 
until it has all but completed the extinction of Eastern 
Christianity. Gibbon observes, tliat upon the taking 
of Jerusalem, " by the command of Omar, the ground 
of the temple of Solomon was prepared for the 
foundation of a mosque."* And it is worthy of 
notice, that whereas the original word used by 
Daniel for ** sanctuary" is Kodsh, the same historian 
remarks, that the epithet Al Kods is used now, and 
was then among the Arabs as the proper appellation 
of the Holy City, of which the sanctuary or temple 
was the distinguishing ornament and glory. 

Ver. 12. And an host was given htm against the 
daily sacrifice by reason of transgression : and it cast 
down the truth to the ground : and it practised and 
prospered. — From this it would appear, that power 
was to be given to the little horn, not merely for the 
subversion of the true religion, but also for the per- 
manent substitution of another faith. " Host," we 
may naturally suppose, means in this place the same 
as when it was used in a former verse, — " a host of 
stars," symbolical of the several orders of Christian 
pastors and ministers. " An host," then, to be given 
to the liltle horn, implies that he too should have 
his orders of teachers^ and a regular system of reli- 
gious worship, and that by means of this new and 
spurious ecclesiastical polity, the Christian ministry 
should be opposed and superseded, and " the truth 
cast to the ground." The prediction, thus inter- 
preted, according to the natural force of the lan- 
guage and construction, is applicable to no other 
known power ; but as applied to the heresy of Mo- 
hammed, its fulfilment appears perfect. For tht^ 

* D«jc. and Fall, ch. li. 



religion of Islam pennanently overthrew the Chris- 
tian priesthood and altars, by the permanent erection 
of other altars and of another priesthood in their 
room. Every where throughout its vast domains 
the mosques replaced the Christian temples; and 
the Imams and the Muezzin were substituted for the 
appointed ministry of Christ. In a more enlarged 
view, the Saracens and Turks themselves com- 
posed the antagonist host or priesthood. For in 
Mohammedanism, the sword being the grand engine 
of conversion, the whole Mussulman people became 
virtually a priesthood; and each individual Saracen 
and Turkish soldier a missionary and maker of 

Ver, '<J3. And in the latter time of their kingdom^ 
icn the transgressors are come to the falU a king 
'fierce countenance and understanding {teaching) 
lark sentences, shall stand up. We are here fur- 
nished with a chronological clew to the period of 
the commencement of this disastrous power. — The 
first three empires, forming a part of the symbolic 
image which appeared in vision to Nebuchadnezzar, 
were indeed stripped of their dominions by the con- 
quests of the fourth, or Roman empire ; but still, in 
the view of prophecy, their lives are considered as 
being nevertheless prolonged ; Dan. vii. 12. Hence 
it is an indisputable fact that the little horn of Mo- 
hammedanism rose up in the latter time of the 
Greek empire. — Another striking note of the time 
of the rise of this power is contained in the words, 
" When the transgressors are come to the full," or, 
" when the apostacy shall be completed." By the 
transgressors or apostates here mentioned, we must 
understand the corrupt Christian Church, with its 
degenerate pastors, the smitten ecclesiastical stars, 
Bpoken of in a former verse. We learn both from 
the civil and sacred history of the time when Mo- 
hammed arose, that the Christian Churcli had then 
arrived at the height of those corruptions in doctrine 


and practice, which had been so clearly foretold by 
the Apostle Paul in his prediction of the Man of Sin. 
The extraordinary success of the Mohammedan im- 
posture was permitted as a punishment of this great 
defection. The allegorical host, by reason of their 
apostacy from the truth, were subjected to the ty- 
ranny of the little horn. But this apostacy, which 
had long previously infected both the East and the 
West, was completed, or had reached its acme, about 
the commencement of the seventh century, when 
the prophet of Islam first appeared. Gibbon, the 
historian, introduces his account of Mohammedanism 
by observing, that " the Christians of the seventh 
century had insensibly relapsed into a semblance of 
paganism." From this time, therefore, the stars 
were given into the hand of the little horn, as the 
appointed rod of God's anger : they were penally 
consigned to its tyranny by reason of their previous 
apostacy into the idolatrous superstitions of the Gen- 
tiles. Again, as far as the aspect of Mohammedan- 
ism is concerned, that wonderful ecclesiastical 
domination may well be described as a " kingdom 
of fierce countenance," when the avowed maxim 
of its founder was to employ the sword as the grand 
engine of conversion. Of this ferocious spirit its 
proselytes have in all ages largely partaken. Some, 
however, suppose the words should be translated 
" of a firm countenance," denoting the bold effron- 
tery of the barefaced, impudent liar ; and such were 
Mohammed and his successors : their religion is, in 
truth, the most glaring imposition that was ever 
palmed upon the credulity of mankind. — As to the 
remaining character of this desolating power — that 
he should " understand dark sentences" — the expres- 
sion, " dark sentences," is equivalent to the familiar 
scriptural phrases, " dark sayings," and " dark say- 
ings of old." These phrases, in the language of 
the sacred writers, will be found uniformly to con- 
vey a spiritual signification. Thus the Psalmist, 


*1 will open my mouth in a parable; I will uttei 
dark sayings of old.^^ It seems probable, therefore, 
*hat the equivalent expression, "dark sentences," 
/elates, in one shape or other, to reli^on ; and the 
' understanding dark sentences," to real or pre- 
t,ended skill in the interpretation of things spiritual. 
The Koran, so celebrated in the Mohammedan reli- 
f ion, the book containing their spiritual mysteries, 
exactly answers to this description. And it is not a 
fittle remarkable, that the author of the Koran should 
ftave been unconsciously led to appropriate the lan- 
guage of this very prediction to himself " O Lord, 
ihou hast given me a part of the kingdom, and hast 
laught me the interpretation of dark sayings,'''* " We 
taught him the interpretation of dark sayings, but 
the greater part of them men do not understand." 
* This is a secret history which we reveal unto thee, 
Mohammed."* As the fabricator, therefore, of the 
Koran, Mohammed has himself confirmed his claim 
to the prophetic distinction of " understanding dark 
sentences ;" for it is the declared object of this pre- 
tended revelation to revive the traditions of ancient 
times concerning God and religion ; and it professes 
farther to unfold the history of futurity, and the se- 
crets of the invisible world. 

Ver. 24. And his power shall be mighty, but not 
by his own power, — Of this language a twofold in- 
terpretation may be suggested, either of which is 
satisfactory, though it be not easy to decide which 
of them is the true one. By "his power being 
mighty, but not by his own power," may be meant, 
that the temporal power of Mohammed and his suc- 
cessors was to owe its greatness and perpetuity to 
his spiritual dominion ; or, in other words, that the 
empire which he founded was to be upheld by the 
impoHure which he established. To this purpose 
the following passage from Demetrius Cantemir, the 

* Koran, ch. xii. 


historian of the Ottoman empire, will he found very 
striking. " The Turks," says he, " ascribe the for- 
tunate successes of the empire, not so much to hu- 
man prudence, policy, and valour, as that their first 
emperors waged war, not through ambition and a 
desire of dominion, but through the zeal of propaga^ 
ting the Mohammedan religion ; and by that means 
they procured ihe divine assistance to their under- 
takings." The temporal power of Mohammedanism, 
accordingly, has repeatedly risen and declined ; the 
Mohammedan world has again and again changed 
masters, but its spiritual tyranny has subsisted in 
undiminished vigour ; it has lived and reigned un- 
altered, through the whole of its period thus far ful- 
filled. It is mighty, therefore, by the power of the host 
given unto it. According to another interpretation, 
the passage mgy be simply designed to teach, that 
the remarkable success of the Mohammedan power 
is to be referred directly to the special providence 
of God, that the results attained were so entirely to 
transcend all that could be anticipated from the ordi- 
nary operation of human causes, that the hand of 
God was to be clearly recognised in every stage of 
its progress. Viewed in this light, the language of 
the Most High respecting Nebuchadnezzar may 
afford a commentary of most striking pertinency upon 
this prediction : " O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, 
and the staff in their hand is mine indignation. I 
will send him against an hypocritical nation, and 
against the people of my wrath will I give him a 
charge to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to 
tread them down like the mire of the streets. How- 
beit, he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think 
so ; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off na- 
tions not a few. For he saith, by the strength of 
mine hand I have done it, and by my wisdom ; for I 
am prudent. Shall the ax boast itself against him 
that heweth therewith? or shall the saw magnify 
itself against him that shaketh it? as if the rod 


should shake itself against them that lift it up, of a» 
if the staff should lift up itself as if it were no wood."* 
Jind he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prospet 
and practise 9 and shall destroy the mighty and tht 
holy people. — It should be borne in mind that the 
verses we are now considering contain the an- 
gel's interpretation of the symbolic actions per- 
formed by the little horn in the vision. Of these 
the principal was his rudely invading the emblematic 
*' host," or the hierarchy, violently casting them xo 
the ground, and stamping upon them with his feet. 
The language before us is unquestionably exegeti- 
cal of this figurative scenery, and the phrases, '* shall 
destroy wonderfully," and " shall destroy the mighty 
and the holy people," are equivalent to saying, he 
shall succeed to a surprising degree in causing mul- 
titudes to apostatize from the Christian profession. 
This was to be done by spreading the poison of a 
false religion. For the original word rendered ** de- 
stroy" is a term implying not merely physical de* 
struction, but moral corruption, or the vitiating in/, 
fluence of false doctrines and principles upon human 
conduct. It is the term employed in the following 
passages : — " For all flesh had corrupted his way 
upon the earth;" " Take ye therefore good heed 
unto yourselves, lest ye corrupt yourselves, and 
make you a graven image, «fec. ;" " They are cor^ 
rupt ; they have done abominable works." In allu- 
sion to these expressions, it is said in the annuncia- 
tion of divine judgments in the Apocalypse, " Thy 
wrath IS come, that thou should st destroy them that 
destroy the earth ;" i. e. those that corrupt the earth. 
In affixing this sense to the destruction to be achieved 
by the little horn, or the Mohammedan power, it is 
not necessary to exclude the idea of the bloodshed 
and desolation which have marked the progress of 
the Saracen and Turkish arms in planting and de^i 

* Isaiah, ch. x. 5—15. 


fending their dominion. Yet we think the sense of 
a moral depravation, brought about by the introduc- 
tion of a spurious and pestilent faith, and accom- 
phshing a sad defection among the professors of the 
true religion, answers better to the nature of the 
symbol employed, and is equally accordant with the 
truth of history. 

Fer. 25. ,^nd through his policy also he shall cause 
craft to prosper in his hand : ana he shall magnify 
himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many : 
he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes. — 
The institution of the religion of the Koran with its 
" host," or orders of teachers, and its system of wor- 
ship, was Mohammed's masterpiece of " policy." 
It was by this means that his followers supplanted 
the preadif rs of the Gospel, and converted to the 
faith multitudes of those over whom the temporal 
authority hud been extended by the power of the 
sword. " Policy" here is probably to be understood 
in the sense of unprincipled shrewdness, the working 
of a keen but depraved intellect, laying its plans 
with a serpentine subtlety, and executing them with 
an entire recklessness of the moral character of the 
means employed. In this manner success has 
crowned the Mohammedan power ; their vile arts, 
their " craft," their perfidy, have stangely prospered. 
No more striking characteristic of the founder or 
the followers of Islam could be designated. "In 
the exercise of political government," says Gibbon, 
" Mohammed was compelled to abate of the stern 
rigour of fanaticism, to comply in some measure 
with the prejudices and passions of his followers, 
and to employ even the vices of mankind as the in- 
strument of their salvation. The use of fraud and 
perfidy, of cruelty and injustice, was often subser- 
vient to the propagation of the faith." " In the sup- 
port of truth, the arts of fraud and fiction may be 
deemed less criminal ; and he would have started 
at the foulness of the means, had he not been satie- 

fied of the importance and justice of the end/' The 
recent Travels in the East of Mr. Madden, an English 
•Sfentleman, furnish some very graphic sketches of 
Mohammedan character, -which maj^ be adduced to 
fill up the prophetic portraiture we are now consi- 
dering. "His (the Turk's) inherent hostility to 
Christianity is the first principle of his law ; a7id the 
perfidy it is supposed to enjoin is the most prominent 
feature in his character."* " The most striking qua- 
lities of the Moslem are his profound ignorance, his 
insuperable arrogance, his habitual indolence, and 
t rie perfidy which directs his policy in the divan, 
und regulates his ferocity in the field."! " As to the 
outward man, the Turk is, physically speaking, the 
finest animal, and, indeed, excels all Europeans in 
bodily vigour as well as beauty. As to their moral 
qualities, I found them charitable to the poor, atten- 
tive to the sick, and kind to their domestics ; but I 
also found them perfidious to their friends, treache- 
rous to their enemies, and thankless to their bene- 
factors."{ " I never found a Turk who kept his 
word when it was his interest to break it."^ 

As to the expression, " by peace he shall destroy 
many," it has been interpreted by some as implying, 
that the kingdom represented by the little horn 
should destroy many by wasting invasions while 
their victims were slumbering in a state of negligent 
security ; a peculiarity said to have been exemplified 
•n the whole progress of the Saracen arms. Such 
may have been the case ; but we incline to attribute 
another import to the words. Adhering to the sense 
before given to the word " destroy," as implying the 
same as to corrupt^ seduce, lead into destructive error, 
we suppose the allusion to be to the fact, that thou- 
sands during the victorious progress of the Moslem 
urms accepted of life, safety, and " peace," on con- 
dition of their embracing the foul imposture of the 

♦ Madden'8 Travels, voL i. p. 18 

t Ib.p.lQ. 

t lb. p. 29. 

$ lb. p. 31. 



conquerors. Thus it was that "by peace he de- 
stroyed many ;" i. e. he corrupted them by the terms 
on which he granted peace. It is notorious that 
these were " death, tribute, or the Koran," and where 
the subject nations escaped the point of the sword, 
they were destroyed by the corrupting and deadly 
influence of the superstition which tliey embraced. 

But he shall he broken without hand. — That is to 
say, not by human hands, or by the instrumentality 
of man, as empires are usually overthrown ; but this 
spiritual dominion is to meet its fate when the stone 
cut out " without hands" is dashed against the 
image, and reduces all the power of despotism and 
delusion to the dust. Expositors of prophecy are 
many of them confident in the belief that the Mo- 
hammedan imposture will begin to be broken, with- 
out hand, at the time when the great antichristian 
confederacy of the Roman beast is destroyed ; and 
at the epoch when the Millennium is on the point of 
commencing. At this period the Gospel will begin 
to be successfully preached throughout the whole 
world; and the issue, it is supposed, will be the uni- 
versal gathering of the Gentiles into the pale of the 
Christian Church. During this period, the Moham- 
medans will be converted to the true faith; and 
when their conversion shall have become general, 
the spiritual kingdom of the Eastern little horn will, 
no doubt, be broken. But in that case, it will plainly 
have been broken without hand ; for it will not have 
been broken by the sword of violence, in the hand 
of an earthly conqueror ; but by the invisible agency 
of the Holy Spirit, inclining the hearts of its long- 
deluded votaries to renounce their errors, and to 
embrace the faith of the true Prophet of God. 

Thus we have seen, that the little horn of the 
Bymbolical he-goat answers in every important pai- 
ticular, however circumstantial, which has hitherto 
been accomplished, to the successful imposture of 
Mohammed. The result, therefore, of the whole in- 


qulry must be, that by the little horn, described in 
this chapter of Daniel, is symbolized the spiritual 
kingdom of Mohammedanism. 

Another parallel prophecy is now to be traced in 
the Apocalypse of John, who has confirmed ana 
'Uustrated the most important predictions of Daniel. 

REVELATION, CH. IX. 1 — 19. 

1. And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto 
the earth : and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit 

%. And he opened the bottomless pit ; and ther? arose a smoke out of 
the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace ; and the sun and the air 

3. were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit. And there came 
out of the smoke locusts upon the earth : and unto them was given 

4. power, as the scorpions of the earth have power. And it was com 
manded them that they should not hurt tlie grass of the earth, 
neither any green thing, neither any tree ; but only those men 

$. which have not the seal of God in their foreheads. And to them it 
was given that they should not kill them, but that they should be 
tormented five months : and their torment was as the torment of a 

6. scorpion, when he striketh a man. And in those days shall men 
seek death, and shall not find it ; and shall desire to die, and death 

7. shall flee from them. And the shapes of the locusts were like unto 
horses prepared unto battle ; and on their heads were as it were 

8. crowns, like gold, and their faces were as the taces of men. And 
they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as the 

9. teeth of lions. And they had breastplates, as it were breastplates 
of irnn ; and the sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots 

10 of many horses, running to battle. And they had tails like unto scor- 
pions ; and there Avere stings in their tails : and their power was 

11 to hurt men five months. And they had a king over them, which 
is the angel of the bottomless pit ; whose name, in the Hebrew 
tongue, is Abaddon ; but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apol- 

12. lyon. One wo is \m^t\ and behold there came two more woes 

13. hereafter. And the sixth ungeJ sounded, and 1 heard a voice from 

14. the four horns of the golden altar, '.vhich in before God ; saying to 
the sixth angel, which h^d Mie trumpet, loose the four angels which 

15. are bound in rhe river Euphiaies. Ano the four angels were 
loosed which were prepared for aa hciiLr and a day, and a month 

16 and a year, for lo slay me third par» r,f men. A.nd the number of 
the army of the poracmen were two hundred thousand thousand: 

17. and I heard the number of them. And thus 1 saw the horses in 
the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, 
and of jacinth, and brimstone : and the heads of the horses were 
as the heads of lions ; and out of their mouths issued fire, and 

18. snr.olie, and brintotone. Ity these three was the third part of men 
killed ; by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, whidi 


10. issued out of their mouths. For their power is in their mouth, an* 
in their tails : for their tnils were like unto serpents, and had 
heads, and with them tliey do hurt. 

** In tlie prediction of Daniel," observes Mr. Faber, 
" Mohammedanism alone is spoken of: its two prin- 
cipal supporters, the Saracens and the Turks, are not 
discriminated from each other : a general history of 
the superstition from its commencement to its termi 
nation is given, without descending to particularize 
the nations by which it sliould be successively pa- 
tronised. In the Revelation of John, this deficiency 
is supplied ; and we are furnished with two distinct 
and accurate paintings, both of the Saracenic locusts 
under their exterminating leader, and of the Eu- 
phratean horsemen of the four Turkish Sultanies." 
These two departments of the prophecy we shall 
now endeavour to explain in their minute parti- 

Ver. 1. And I saw a star Jail (Gr. "havin^^ 
fallen") Jrom heaven unto the earth ; and to him wa» 
given the key of the bottomless pit, and there arose a 
smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace : 
and the sun and the air were darkened by reason oj 
the smoke of the pit, — Commentators at the present 
day are almost universally agreed in regarding tlu^ 
fifth trumpet as symbolizing and predicting the ap- 
pearance of the Arabian impostor, his spurious reli- 
gion, and his Saracen followers But, as it is by 
no means evident, how Mohammed himself can 
properly be represented as "a star faUing from 
heaven," the usual symbol of an apostate Christian 
teacher, or of a number of them, we apprehend the 
design of the Holy Spirit in this imagery to be, to 
teach us, that Mohammedanism is to be considered as 
the fruit or product of a Christian heresy. The star 
had fallen before the time of the false prophet, in 
the person of Arius, and otlier gross heretics ; and 
as the consequence of their apostacy from the truth, 
he providence of God so ordered it, that the deso* 


laang delusion of Mohammedanism should arise and 
overspread some of the fairest portions of the Church. 
This view of the arch-imposture of Islamism has 
been taken by some very able writers of modern 
times ; particularly by Mr. Whitaker in his " Origin 
of Arianism." The grand heresies, therefore, of the 
Christian Church, previous to the time of Moham- 
med, seem to be here personified in the fallen star, 
and represented as being instrumental in introducing 
this master-plague of error and superstition into the 
world. The poetical machinery of the vision is 
supposed to be taken from the sacred oracular caves 
of the ancient Pagans, which were often thought to 
communicate with the sea, or the great abyss, and 
which were specially valued, when (like that at 
Delphi) they emitted an intoxicating vapour: it is 
used, therefore, with singular propriety in foretelling 
the rise of a religious imposture. There may pos- 
sibly be an allusion also to the cave of Hera, whither 
the prophet was wont to retire for the purpose of ex- 
cogitating his system, and from which it really ema- 
nated. The opening of the bottomless pit, there- 
fore, and the letting out the vapour and smoke of the 
infernal regions, aptly represents the wicked and 
diabolical system of religion, the dense and noxious 
fumes of the corrupt theology which he broached, 
and by means of which so large a portion of Chris- 
tendom was finally obscured and involved in dark- 
ness. The preternatural darkening of the sun fore- 
shows the eclipse of the true religion ; and that of 
the air prefigures the uncontrolled dominion of the 
powers of darkness. As a striking coincidence with 
the signs here predicted, it is worthy of note, that a 
remarkable comet immediately preceded the birtlj 
of Mohammed ; and that an eclipse of the sun, of ex- 
traordinary degree and duration, attended the first 
announcement of his pretended mission. 

Ver, 2. And there came out of the pit locusts upon 
the car^A.— Arabia has long been noted for giving 



birth to prodigious swarms of locusts, which often 
overspread and lay waste the neighbouring coun- 
tries ; and it is remarkable, that in a genuine Arabian 
romance, the locust is introduced as the national em- 
blem of the Ishmaelites. The symbol, therefore, of 
the locusts issuing out of the smoke strikingly repre- 
sents the armies of the Saracens, the maitial fol- 
lowers of the prophet, first engendered, as it were, 
amid the fumes of his religion, and then marching 
forth, at his command, to conquer and to proselyte 
the world. The pages of history must be consulted 
to learn the devastations of those hosts of destruc- 
tive Saracens, which, under the guidance of Moham- 
med and his successors, alighted upon and wasted 
the apocalyptic earth. Yet, notwithstanding the 
phantasms that came forth from the pit of the abyss 
bore a general resemblance to locusts, they were 
marked by several peculiarities, by which they were 
more perfectly adapted to typify the people designed 
to be thus shadowed out. These we shall consider 
as we proceed. 

Ver. 4. And it was commanded them that they 
should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green 
thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have 
not the seal of God in their foreheads. — By the com- 
m-^nd that they should not hurt the grass, nor the 
trees, but men only, it is evident that these were not 
natural, but symbolical locusts ; and also that they 
were under providential control. The same thing 
appears from other attributes assigned them, which 
plainly belong to the objects signified, and not to the 
sign; as the human face, the woman's hair, the 
golden crowns, the iron breastplates. But it is very 
common in the symbolic diction of prophecy, to find 
the literal and the allegorical sense intennixed, and 
that even in the same passage. We are thus fur- 
nished with a clew to the real meaning of the sym- 
bols. By the precept here given, the emblematic 
locusts were required to act in a manner perfectly 


dissimilar to the ravages of natural locusts : and yet 
how faithfully the command was obeyed, may be in- 
ferred from the following very remarkable injunction 
of the Caliph Abubeker to Yezid, upon setting out 
on the expedition against Syria, the^rs^ undertaking 
of the Saracens in the way of foreign conquest. It 
can scarcely be doubted, that tliese instructions have 
been preserved, under the providence of God, for tlie 
express purpose of furnishing an illustration of this 
prophetic text. " Remember," said Abubeker, "that 
you are always in the presence of God, on tlie verge 
of death, in the assurance of judgment, and the hope 
of paradise. Wlien you fight the battles of the 
Lord, acquit yourselves like men, without turning 
your backs ; but let not your victory be stained with 
the blood of women or children. Destroy no palm- 
trees, nor burn any fields of corn. Cut down nc 
fruit-trees ; nor do any niischiefi to cattle, only such as 
you kill to eat. When you make any covenant, stand 
to it, and be as good as your word. As you go on. 
you will find some religious persons, who live retired 
in monasteries, and propose to themselves to serve 
God that way: let them alone, and neither kill them, 
nor destroy their monasteries. And you will find 
another sort of people, that belong to the synagogue 
of Satan, who have shaven crowns: be sure you 
cleave their skulls, and give them no quarter till they 
either turn Mahometans, or pay tribute."* It has 
accordingly been noticed, that those parts of the 
Roman empire which were left untouched by these 
Saracen hordes, were those in which it appears from 
history the remnant of tlie true church of God was 
still found residing : they were only to hurt the men 
who had not the mark of God on their foreheads. 

Ver. 5. And to them it was given that they should 
not kill them, but that they should be tormented five 
months, and their torment was as the tormtnt of a 

♦ Ockley^s History of the Saracens, toI. i. 


scorpion, zvhen he striketh a man. — Mr. Gibbon's \\n 
flesi^iied coiiiineiitaiy on these words will show how 
the cojumission was fulfilled. " The fair option of 
friendship or submission, a battle was proposed to the 
enemies of Mahomet. If they professed the creed 
of Islam, they were admitted to all the temporal and 
spiritual benefits of his primitive disciples, and 
marched under the same banners, to extend the re- 
ligion they had embraced. The clemency of the 
prophet was decided by his interests ; yet he seldom 
trampled on a prostrate enemy, and he seemed to 
promise, that on the payment of a tribute, the least 
guilty of his unbelieving subjects might be indulged 
in their worship." — The period assigned for the 
power of the locusts, in this prediction, is " five 
months." Prophecy has its peculiar mode of com- 
puting time. A day for the most part stands for a 
year. Five months, therefore, of thirty days each, 
amount, in the computation of prophecy, to one hun- 
dred and fifty years. As five literal months is the 
utmost term of the duration of the natural plague of 
the locusts, so the prophetic five months accurately 
denote the period of the main conquests of the wSa- 
racen empire, computing from the appearance of 
Mohammed to the foundation of Bagdad. " Read," 
says Bishop Newton, " the history of the Saracens, 
and you will find, that their greatest exploits were 
performed, and their greatest conquests made, within 
the space of five prophetic months, or one hundred 
and fifty years, — between the year 612, when Ma- 
homet opened tlie bottomless pit, and began publicly 
to teach and propagate his imposture ; and the year 
762, when Aimansor built Bagdad, and called it the 
city of peace." The comparison of the locusts' tor- 
ments to that of the scorpion will be considered sub- 

Ver 6. And in those days shall men seek death, and 
shall not find it; and shall desire to die, but death shall 
flee from them. — This prediction has usually been 


considered as awfully expressive of the hopeless 
sufferings and despair of Eastern Christendom, uiidei 
the lawless insults, violences, and oppressions sys- 
tematically practised by their Saracen masters. WV 
would not deny that this may have been alluded to ; 
yet, as it would seem that men desirous of escapmir 
suffering by death, might easily, in a thousand way^ 
have accomplished their object, it may be suggested, 
whether the Saracens themselves are not the persons 
here referred to, as coveting death in battle, from a 
view to the honour, and the rewards of such a de- 
cease. The following passage from the Koran, is 
worthy of special note in this connexion. "More- 
over, ye did sometimes wish for death, before that ye 
met it."* On these words Sale remarks, in a note, 
*' that several of Mohammed's followers, who wer^i 
not present at Beder, wished for an opportunity of 
obtaining, in another action, the like honour as 
those had gained who fell martyrs in that event.*" 
The import of the language, therefore, may be, ihut 
God should give to the Moslem hosts such an unm- 
terrupted tide of conquests, they should so uun 
formly come off victorious in their engagements, 
and that with such inconsiderable losses, that num- 
bers, in the height of their enthusiasm, should pant 
in vain for the glorious privilege of dying in the 
field of battle. 

Ver, 7. Jindihe shapes of the locusts were like unto 
horses prepared unto battle, — " Arabia," sa^^s Gibbon, 
" is, in the opinion of naturalists,the native countr}^ 
of the horse." The horsemanship of the Arabs has 
ever been an object of admiration. '* The martial 
youth, under the banner of the Emir, is ever on 
horseback and in the field, to practise the exercise 
of the bow, the javelin, and the scimitar." In cor- 
respondence, therefore, with the hieroglyphic of the 
prophet, the strength of the Saracens consisted very 

♦ Koran, ch. iii 


much in their numerous cavalry, and the unrivalled 
speed of the Arabian coursers forms the most strik- 
ing possible emblem of the rapid career of the Sa 
racen armies. 

And on their heads were as it were crowns like gold^ 
and their Jaces were as the faces of men, — " Make a 
point," says a precept of Mohammed, " of weaiing 
turbans; because it is the way of angels." The tur- 
ban, accordingly, has ever been the distinctive head- 
dress of the Arabs, and their boast has been, that 
they wore, as their common attire, those ornaments, 
which among other people are the peculiar badges 
of royalty. The notice of the "faces of men" 
seems to be intended merely to afford a clew to the 
meaning of the emblem ; to intimate, that not na- 
tural locusts, but human beings, were depicted under 
this symbol. 

Ver, 8. And they had hair, as the hair of women, 
and their teeth were as the teeth of lions. — The Arabs, 
as Pliny testifies, wore their beards, or rather mus- 
tachios, as men, while their hair, like that of women, 
was flowing or plaited. The " teeth like those of 
lions," has reference to the weapons and imple- 
ments of war ; and the " breastplates of iron" to 
the armour made use of by the Saracen troops in 
their expeditions. The " sound of their wings as 
the sound of chariots of many horses running to 
battle," is but a part of the same expressive imagery 
denoting wa-like scenes and preparations. 

Fcr. 10. And they had tails like unto scorpions : 
and there were stings in their tails. The interpreta- 
tion of the symbols of the Apocalypse must be 
sought for in the Old Testament. From the follow- 
ing words of Isaiah (ch. ix. 14, 15) it appears that 
the tail of a beast denotes tlie fal^e doctrines or the 
superstition which he maintains : — " Therefore the 
Lord will cut off from Israel head and tail, branch 
and rush, in one day. The ancient and honourable, 
he is the head ; and the prcyphet that teacheth lies, he 


istke taiiy The embleju, iliereforf:, strikingly repre- 
sents the infliction of s[5ifjt»!al wounds by the propa- 
gation of poisonous and deadly errors and heresies. 
And nothing is more evident from the page of his- 
tory than that the Moslem followers of Mohammed 
have scattered, like scorpions, the venom of their 
doctrines behind them ; and whether conquering or 
conquered, have succeeded in palming a new creed 
upon those with whom they have liad to do. By 
this symbol, then, we are plainly taught, that the 
plague of the allegorical locusts consisted not only 
in the ravages of war, but in the successful propaga- 
tion of a false religion, of which the doctrines should 
be as deleterious in a spiritual point of view, as the 
sting of a scorpion in a natural. In like manner, 
when it is said (ch. xii. 3, 4) of the " great red dragon 
having seven heads and ten horns, that his tail drew 
the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast 
them to the earth," the explication is, that the Anti- 
christian power shadowed out by this formidable 
monster should be permitted to instil the most per- 
nicious errors into the minds of the professed minis- 
ters of the truth, and thus bring about their entire 
defection from Christianity. 

Ver. 11. And they had a king over them, which is 
the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the 
Hebrew tongue is Maddon, but in the Greek tongue 
hath his name Jlpollyon. — Both these terms signify 
destroyer. Since the locusts are at once secular 
conquerors and the propagators of a false religion, 
their king must stand to them in the double relation 
of a temporal and spiritual head. Such accordingly 
were Mohammed and tlie Caliphs his successors, who 
must be viewed as jointly constituting the locust- 
king Abaddon; for in the usual language of pro- 
phecy, a king denotes, not any single individual, but 
a dynasty or kingdom. The chief of the locusts, 
when they first issued from the pit of the abyss, was 
Mohammed himself; but during the allotted period 
of the wo which they occt'sioned, the reicnine" df' 


stroyer was, of course, the reigning Caliph. If 
therefore, we were to suppose the genius of Moham' 
medanism under the Caliphs to be personified, and 
this symbolical personage to be designated by the 
most appropriate title, Abaddon, the destroyer, would 
be the appellation. 

As the portion of the prophecy thus far considered 
has reference to the origin of Mohammed's impos- 
ture, and to the rise, progress, and conquests of the 
Saracens, its earliest abettors and propagators, so the 
remaining part announces the commencement and 
career of the Turkish power, the principal of its later 

Ver, 13. And the sixth angel sounded^ and I heard a 
voice from the four horns of the golden altar, which is 
before God, saying to the sixthangel which had the trum- 
pet, Loose the four angels which are hound in (rather a^ 
by, in the vicinity of) the great river Euphrates, and 
the four angels were loosed, — It is impossible, from the 
train of events, and from the quarter of the world in 
which we are directed to look for the irruption of 
these prodigious multitudes of horsemen, to mistake 
to whom the prophecy refers. The four angels who 
are described as bound in the regions bordering on 
the river Euphrates, not in the river itself, are the 
four contemporary sultanies or dynasties, into which 
the empire of the Seljukian Turks w^as divided 
towards the close of the eleventh century : Persia, 
Kerman, Syria, and Rhoum. These sultanies, from 
different causes, were long restrained from extend- 
ing their conquests beyond what may be geo- 
graphically termed the Euphratean regions, but to- 
wards the close of the thirteenth century, the four 
angels on the river Euphrates were loosed in the 
persons of their existing representatives, the united 
Ottoman and Seljukian Turks. The historian of the 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire must of ne- 
cessity be the guide to any English commentator on 
this part of the prophetic history. The following is 
his testimony as to the imm^^nsp number of the 


Turkish cavali^'. *' As the subject nations marched 
under the standard of the Turks, their cavalry, both 
taen and horses, were provdly computed by millions.^'' 
' On this occasion, the myriads oj the Turkish horse 
'overspread a frontier of six hundred miles, from 
Taurus to Erzeroum." 

Ver, 17. And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and 
those that sat on them^ having breastplates of fire and of 
jacinth, and brimstone. — These prophetic character- 
istics of the Euphratean warriors accord in the most 
perfect manner with the description which history 
^ives of the Turks. They brought immense armies 
into the field, chiefly composed of horse, and from 
their first appearance on the great political stage of na- 
tions their costume has been peculiarly distinguished 
by the colours of scarlet, blue, and yellow, which 
are here denoted by the terms " fire," " jacinth," and 
" brimstone." Rycaut's " Present State of the Otto- 
man Empire," published towards the close of the 
seventeenth century, will satisfy the reader on this 

And the heads of the horses were as the heads of 
lions, and out of their mouths issued fire and smoke 
and brimstone. We have here a symbol which is 
not elsewhere to be met with in the Scriptures. The 
prophetic horses are represented as vomiting out of 
their mouths " fire, and smoke, and brimstone," by 
which it is added, " the third part of men was killed." 
Mede, Newton, Faber, and most other eminent ex- 
positors of the Revelation, agree in supposing that 
the flashes of fire attended by smoke and brimstone, 
which seemed to proceed from the mouths of the 
horses, were in reality the flashes of artillery* The 
Turks were among the first who turned to account 
the European invention of gunpowder in carrying 
on their wars. Cannon, the most deadly engine of 
modern warfare, were employed by Mohammed II. 
in his wars against the Greek empire ; and it is said 
that he was indebted to his heavy ordnance for the 


reduction of Constantinople. The prophet, therefore, 
is to be considered as depicting the visionary scene of 
a field of battle, in which the cavalry and artillery 
are so mingled together, that while flashes of fire and 
dense clouds of smoke issued from the cannon, the 
horses' lieads alone would be dimly discerned through 
the sulphureous mist, and would seem to the eye of 
the spectator to belch forth the smoky flames from 
their own mouths. As the design of this striking 
imagery is to describe the appearances rather than 
the reality of things, the prophet employs an expres- 
sion,* " in the vision," or rather " in vision," i. e. ap- 
parently, as it seemed, which evidently conveys the 
idea that the phantasm of a battle scene was pre- 
sented to the imagination. We may now see how 
far history confirms this inteipretation. " Among 
the implements of destruction," says Mr. Gibbon, 
" he (Mohammed II.) studied with peculiar care the 
recent and tremendous discovery of the Latins ; and 
his artillery surpassed whatever had yet appeared in 
the world." " The Ottoman artillery thundered on 
all sides, and the camp and city, the Greeks and 
Turks, were involved in a cloud of smoke which 
could only be dispelled by the final deliverance or 
destruction of the Roman empire." " The great can- 
non of Mohammed has been separately an imponant 
and visible ol^ect in the history of the times. But 
that enormous engine, which required, it is said, 
seventy yoke of oxen and two thousand men to 
draw it, was flanked by two fellows almost of equal 
magnitude : the long order of Turkish artillery was 
pointed against the wall ; fourteen batteries thun- 
dered at once on the most accessible places ; and of 
one of these it is ambiguously expressed, that it was 
mounted with a hundred and thirty guns, or that i* 
discharged a hundred and thirty bullets." 

Ver, 19. For their power is in their inotUh, atid in 

* 'Ev hoaau 


their (ails : for their tails were like unto serpents^ 
and had heads, and with them they do hurt, — The 
emblematic import of the tail of a beast we have 
already considered. The imagery in the present 
symbol is slightly different from that of the Saracen 
locusts, which had the tails of scorpions ; but the im- 
port is the same. Here the tails of the horses ter- 
minated in a serpent's head ; and it is not a little 
remarkable, that the Turks have been in the habit, 
from the earliest periods of their history, of tying a 
knot in the extremity of the long flowing tails of 
their horses, when preparing for war ; so that their 
resemblance to serpents with swelling heads must 
have been singularly striking. Striking too is the 
fact, that so slight a circumstance should have been 
adverted to by the historian so often quoted, who 
thought as little of being an organ to illustrate the 
predictions of Scripture, as the Turks themselves 
did of being the agents to fulfil them. Speaking of 
Alp Arslan, the first Turkish invader of the Roman 
empire, he says, " With his own hands he tied up 
his horse''s tail, and declared that if he were van- 
quished, that spot should be the place of his burial." 
The scope of the hieroglyphic here employed is to 
predict the propagation of a deadly imposti^re by the 
instrumentality of the same warlike power which 
should achieve such prodigious conquests. The 
event has corresponded with the prophecy. Like 
the Saracens of the first wo, the Turks were not 
merely secular conquerors. They were animated 
with all the wild fanaticism of a false religion ; they 
professed and propagated the same theological s^'s- 
tem as their Arabian predecessors ; they injured by 
their doctrines no less than by their conquests ; and 
wherever they established their dominion, the Koran 
triumphed over the Gospel. Thus writes Mr. Gib- 
bon : " The whole body of the nation embraced the 
religion of Mohammed." " Twenty-five years after 
the death of BasiU his sur^eessors were suddenly 


assaulted by an luiknowu race of barbarians, who 
united the Scythian valour with the fanatimsm of 
new converts,'^'* 

Sufficient proof has now been afforded, if we mis- 
take not, that the appearance of the Arabian pro- 
phet in the world, and the rise, process, and results 
of his imposture, are clearly foretold in the Sacred 
volume. Indeed, it would not be ensy to specify 
any admitted subject of prophecy, upon which his- 
tory and Providence have thrown a stronger or 
clearer light, than that which we have considered in 
the preceding pages. Interpreters have been justly 
struck at the surprising exactness of the delinea- 
tions, and their perfect accordance with the details 
of history. " The prophetic truths," says Dr. Zouch, 
" comprised in the ninth chapter of the Apocalypse are, 
of themselves, sufficient to stamp the mark of divinity 
upon that book. When I compare them with the page 
of history, I am filled with amazement. The Saracens, 
a people which did not exist in the time of John, and 
the Turks, a nation then utterly unknown, are there 
described in language the most appropriate and dis- 
tinct." If then the considerations commonly ad- 
duced to account for the rise, progiess, and reign of 
Mohammedanism appear to be inadequate, — if the 
human causes usually quoted to explain the asto- 
nishing success of Mohammedan imposture still seem 
to us to leave many of the phenomena inexplicable, 
and the greatest revolution in the world connected 
with the history of the Church stands forth an un- 
solved problem, — why should we hesitate to ascribe 
It directly to the determinate will and counsel of the 
Most High, and thus find a clew to all the myste 
ries connected with it 1 Why should we be anxious 
to escape the recognition of a Divine interference in 
the rise of this arch-heresy ? If we have been cor- 
rect in our interpretation of the preceding predic* 
tions of Daniel and John, the Mohammedan delusion 
is as real and as prominent a subject of prophecy a^ 


any in the whole compass of the Bible. Now, to 
insist upon the operation of merely human causes 
in the production of an event which is truly a sub- 
ject of prophecy, is in fact to take the government 
of the world out of the hands of God. And thig 
principle pushed to the extreme will inevitably lower 
and impugn the sure word of prophecy; for it makes 
God the predicter of events over which, at the same 
time, he has no special superintendence or control. 
Such a principle cannot stand the least examination. 
When Daniel foretels the fortunes of the four great 
empires ; or when Isaiah speaks of Cyrus by name, 
as one who should accomplish certain great pur- 
poses of the Infinite Mind, is it to be supposed, that 
the events predicted were to happen exclusive of 
Providential agency 1 As easily and as justly then 
may we acknowledge a special pre-ordainment in 
the case of Mohammed, whose still more formidable 
dominion and more lasting and more fatal agency 
\n the affairs of men, are equally the theme of un- 
cuestionable predictions. No admission of this na- 
ture militates with the free agency of man, or at all 
affects the moral character of his actions. The 
mere fact that an event is foreknown or foretold by 
the Deity, neither takes away nor weakens the ac- 
countability of the agents concerned. Of this, the 
whole Scripture is full of proofs. But the reflecting 
reader will desire no farther confirmation of so plain 
a position. R 





Caaba is the name given to a very ancient temple, 
in the city of Mecca, the origin of which is lost in 
the darkness of remote ages. Centuries before 
Mohammed was born, and while the Arabs were yet 
pagans, this building was held to possess a peculiar 
sanctity: pilgrimages were made to it from distant 
regions ; and that tribe or family was accounted the 
most honourable, who were the keepers of its keys. 
It is an oblong, massive structure, built of large 
blocks of different sized stones, joined rudely to- 
gether, and is about eighteen paces in length, four- 
teen in breadth, and from thirty-five to forty feet in 
height. It has but one door, on the north side, seven 
feet above the ground, Avholly plated with silver, 
and embellished with gilt ornaments. From tha 
door's being placed, not in the centre, but near to one 
corner of the building, it appears not to have been 
originally designed for a sacred use ; but at \v\at 
time, or for what reasons, it became thus appro- 
priated, it is not possible now to determine, ^ea^ 
the door, in the angle of the wall of the north-east 
corner of the Caaba, about seven spans from the 
ground, is the celebrated "black stone," so de- 
voutly kissed by every pilgrim visiting the sacred 
city. It is of an oval shape, about seven inches in 
diametei, composed of about seven small stones, of 
different sizes and shapes, well joined together with 
cement, and perfectly smooth ; appearing as if the 
original stone had been broken into many pieces by 
a violent blow, and then united again, which indeed 
is reported to have been the fact. A border of some 
kind of cement, rising a little above tlie surface of 


the sloiie, suiTOunds it, and both tliis and th? stone 
aje encircled by a silver band. 

According- to the fabulous legends of the Mussul- 
mans, the "black stone" was brought down from 
heaven by Gabriel, at the creation of the world; 
and was then of a pure white, but has contracted its 
present sable hue from the g-uilt of the sins com- 
mitted by the sons of men. If a conjecture, how- 
ever, may be hazarded, we should not hesitate to 
refer its origin to that peculiar trait in the character 
of the Ishmaelites, which has ever led them to imi- 
tate the Israelites. Scarcely a feature in the reli- 
gious institutions, usages, or traditions of the Jews, 
but has its spurious counterpart in those of the seed 
of Hagar. Jacob's pillar of stone, at Bethel, would 
of course become celebrated among his descendants. 
In like manner, from causes now unknown, we may 
imagine this stone to have received a similar sanctity 
among the Arabs. This is rendered more probable 
from the circumstance, that one of the names given 
to the Caaba, in the Arabic language, is Beit-Allah, 
house of God; a word of the same import and simi- 
lar sound with Beth-el, from which the Greek term 
Baitvlia was frequently applied to sacred stones oi 
memorial-pillars, like that of Jacob. 

Tlie double roof of the Caaba is supported within 
by three octangular pillars of aloes-wood, between 
which, on a bar of iron, hang* a number of silver 
lamps. The four sides without are covered with a 
rich black silk stuff hanging down to the ground, 
and encircled near the top with an embroidered band 
of gold, which compasses the whole building. This 
covering, which is renewed every year, was for- 
merly supplied by the Caliphs, afterward by the 
Sultans of Egypt ; but is now sent from Cairo, at the 
expense of the Grand Seignior, at the time of the 
Hadj, when the old one is cut into small pieces and 
sold to the pilgrims for nearly as much money as 
the new one costs. This curtain or veil, called 


Kesoua^ is blazoned all over with the words, " Tliere 
IS no God, but God," &c. in j^old letters of ^eat 
size ; and such a sacredness attaches to it, that the 
camel which transports it to Mecca is ever after ex« 
empted from labour. This circumstance of the 
Caaba being covered in the manner described sug- 
gests the probability, that the structure was intendec? 
as a rude imitation of the Jewish Tabernacle, which 
was also enveloped in embroidered curtains without, 
while within was a fifolden candlestick, with seven 
branches, kept constantl}^ burning. 

The Caaba, at a slight distance, is surrounded 
with a circular enclosure of thirty-two slender gilt 
pillars, between every two of which are suspended 
seven lamps, upon small bars of silver connecting 
the pillars towards the top. These lamps are always 
lighted after sunset. This sacred paling reminds 
us again of the Tabernacle ; the court of which, 
though of an oblong instead of a circular form, was 
constructed of pillars, and hung with curtains, with 
only a single place of entrance. Within this en- 
closure of the Caaba, and almost contiguous to its 
base, lies the " white stone," said to be the sepul- 
chre of Ishmael, which receives the rain-water fall- 
ing off the flat roof of the edifice through a spout, 
formerly of wood, but now of gold. According to 
the account of Burckhardt, the effect of the whole 
i?cene, the mysterious drapery, the profusion of gold 
and silver, the blaze of lamps, and the kneeling mul- 
titudes, surpasses any thing the imagination could 
have pictured. 

At a small distaii -e from the Caaba, on the east 
side, is the station or place of x\.braham, whom the 
«lrabs affirm to have been the builder of the temple, 
where there is another stone much respected by the 
Moslems, as they pretend that the patriarch stood 
upon it while employed nbout the buildmg, and pro- 
fess to show the prints of his footsteps to this day 
lust without the cininlar court, on its south, north, 


and west sidrs, are three buildings desirrned as ora- 
tories, or places of prayer, where the pilgrim wor- 
shippers perform t)ieir devotions. Besides these 
there are several small buildings near to the main 
structure, in one of which is the famous well of 
Zemzem, said by the Mussulmans to be the very' 
spring which the angel discovered to Hagar in the 
wilderness, and whose waters of course possess the 
most miraculous virtues. They cure all diseases, 
both of body and spirit, and supply the whole town 
for drinking and oblation. It is said to be the only 
sweet water in the whole valley ; but Pitts, an Eng- 
lish traveller, found it brackish, and says, the pil- 
grims drink it so inordinately, that " they are not 
only much purged, but their flesh breaks out all in 
pimples ; and this they called the purging of their 
spiritual corruption." They not only drink, but 
have buckets of water poured over them, and then 
Jhink their sins are washed into the well. One of 
the miracles of Mecca is, that the water of this well 
never diminishes ; but this is not surprising to the 
true believers, who regard it as having been miracu- 
lously created to save the infant Ishmael when dying 
of thirst in the wilderness. Burckhardt, however, 
explains it without a miracle, by supposing that the 
water flows through the bottom, being supplied by a 
subterraneous rivulet. The water, he says, is per- 
fectly sweet, but heavy to the taste, slightly tepici, 
and sometimes in its colour lesembles milk. Tlie 
pilgrims frequently destroy the ropes, buckets, and 
other appendages of the well in their eagerness to 
quafl* its holy water. 

Surrounding all the objects now described, which 
occupy the centre of an open space, is the square 
colonnade or grand piazza, consisting of a quadruple 
row of columns on one side, and a triple row on 
the other three sides, united by pointed oi Gothic 
arches, every four of which support a dome, plas- 
tered white — the numbei of these domes amounting 


to one hundred and fifty-two, and the pillars to four 
liundred and frjity-eight. From the arches of these 
colonnades are suspended lamps, some of which are 
lighted every night, and the whole of them during 
the nights of the Ramadan. The columns are up- 
wards of twenty feet high, and somewhat more tiian 
a loot and a half in diameter; some are of a reddish- 
gray granite, some of red porphyry, and others of 
white marble. No two capitals or bases are exactly 
alike ; in some cases, by the ignorance of the work- 
men, the former have been placed upside down on 
the shafts. The arches and some parts of the walls 
are gaudily painted in stripes of yellow, red, and 
blue, which, as we have already seen, are colours 
peculiar to Mohammedanism. At each of the four 
corners of this immense quadrangular court, tower- 
ing above the pillared domes, rises a lofty minaret, 
surmounted with a gilded crescent, the invariable 
accompaniment of the Moslem temple. 

"The high antiquity of the Canba," says Mr. 
Forster,* " is undisputed. The permanent character 
of its rites is certified by our knowledge of the ad- 
herence of the Arabs, in every age, to their ancient 
customs. But, from the uniform consent of Maho- 
metan writers. It farther appears that the statues of 
Abraham and Ishmael, which from remote antiquity 
nad held a conspicuous place in the Caaba, and con- 
stituted the principal object of its idol worship, re- 
mained to the time of Mahomet, and were there 
found by the Mussulmans after the capture of Mecca, 
Mahomet, Abulfeda tells us, when he took Meccs 
in the eighth year of the Hejirc., found and destroyed 
in the Caaba, on his entering the temple, the image 
of Abraham holding in his hand seven arrows with- 
out heads or feathers, such as the Arabs use in divi- 
nation, and surrounded with a great number of 
angels and prophets, as inferior deities, among 

* MahoiP-^tRrism Unveil'id, vol. ii. p.404. 


whom, as Al Janabi and other writers add, was Ish- 
raael with divining arrows also in his hand. 

" Various external signs, betokening its patriarchal 
origin, may be traced in the Ante-Mahometan 
worship of the Caaba. Among these one custom is 
sufficiently remarkable to claim distinct notice in 
this place, inasmuch as it has been alluded to and 
censured in the Koran.* The pagan Arabs were 
used to compass the Caaba naked, because clothes, 
they said, were the signs of their disobedience to 
God. The celebrated black stone of the Caaba also, 
the primitive source and object of Arabian idolatry, 
strongly indicates the origin to which it has been 
uniformly referred. The Arabs attribute its intro- 
duction into the temple of Mecca to the immediate 
posterity of Ishmael. The peculiar kind of supersti- 
tion is just what might be expected to arise from the 
abuse of an early patriarchal custom — that of setting 
up stones on particular spots in honour of the true 
God. While the connexion is farther made out by 
the exact correspondence in this particular between 
the idolatry of the ancient Israelites and that of the 
Ante-Mahometan Arabians, their identity might 
be largely shown from the Old Testament ; but a 
passage from the prophecy of Isaiah will suffice. 
The prophet thus indignantly reproves the Jews for 
their idolatry : — ' Among the smooth stones of the 
stream is thy portion : they, they are thy lot : even 
to them thou hast poured a drink offering, thou hast 
offered a meat offering.' " 

In connexion with the preceding account of the 
Caaba, the place of the Moslem solemnities, the 
reader may be interested by the following ani- 
mated sketch of the pilgrimage to Mecca, from the 

* Koran, ch. vii. 


Review (in the London Quarterly) of Burckhardt s 
Travels in Arabia. 

"At a certain distance from the Holy City, all pil- 
grims are required to strip themselves naked, throw 
away their garments, and put on the ihram, or ehram^ 
two pieces of linen or cotton cloth, generally white, 
one of them wrapped round the loins, the other 
thrown loosely over the neck and shoulders, while 
the head remains wholly uncovered. Burckhardt 
at once complied with this custom, which has occa- 
sioned the death of many; for when the pilgrimage 
happens in winter, the assumption of the ihram is 
extremely prejudicial to the most robust constitu- 
tion, — more especially to that of the northern Mus- 
sulmans, who have been accustomed to thick woollen 
clothes; 'yet,' says Burckhardt, *the religious 
zeal of some who visit the Hedjaz is so ardent, that 
if they arrive even several months previous to the 
Hadj, they vow, on taking the ihram, not to throw it 
off till after the completion of their pilgrimage to 
Arafat.' It is said, that Haroun Al Raschid and his 
wife Zobeyda once performed the pilgrimage on 
foot from Bagdad to Mekka, clothed only with the 
ihram; but indulged in the luxury of walking on 
splendid carpets the whole way. 

" The ancient Arabs, who reckoned time by lunai 
months, and intercalated a month every three years, 
had the pilgrimage fixed to a certain season, for the 
Hadj is not a Mussulman invention ; but when Ma- 
homet ordained that the same pilgrimage should be 
continued, in honour of the living God, which, for 
ages before him, had been, in forgetfulness of the 
original patriarchal faith of the race, performed in 
honoui of senseless idols, he prescribed the cere- 
mony to a particular lunar month ; and as the 
modem Arabs do not intercalate, its periodical re* 
turns became irregular, and in thiily-three yearj* 
*«hifted through all the months of the year, from the 
height of summer to the depth of winter. 


" On (filtering Mekka, the 1 eiiiple or mosque must 
be immediately visited, whether the stranger be pil- 
jnim or not. The prescribed ceremonies are, first, 
ro repeat certain prayers, in different parts of the 
temple ; then to begin the towajl or walk round the 
Kaaba seven times, kissing the black stone at each 
circuit; then to proceed to the well of Zemzem, 
and drink as much water as they wish or can get. 
The second ceremony which the pilgrim has to per- 
form is, to proceed to the hill of Szafa, and there re- 
peat certain prescribed prayers before he sets out 
on the holy walk, or say, which is along a level spot, 
about six hundred paces in length, terminating at a 
^tone platform, called Meroua. This walk, which 
in certain places must be a run, is to be repeated 
seven times, the pilgrims reciting prayers uninter- 
ruptedly, with a loud voice the whole time. The 
{bird ceremony is that of shaving the head and walk- 
ing to the Omra, about one hour and a half from 
Mekka, chanting pious ejaculations all the way. 
The two former ceremonies must, after this, be 
again repeated. The walk round the Kaaba seven 
times, may be repeated as oft as the pilgrim thinks 
fit, and the more frequently the more meritorious. 

"About seventy thousand persons assembled at 
Mekka, when Burckhardt made his pilgrimage, and 
submitted to the performance of these ceremonies. 
This is the least number which the Mussulmans told 
Ali Bey there must necessarily be assembled at every 
pilgrimage, on Mount Arafat ; and that in case any 
deficiency should occur, angels are sent down from 
heaven to complete the number. Pitts says pre- 
cisely the same thing. When Ali Bey went through 
this part of the ceremony, he tells us, an assemblage 
of eighty thousand men, two thousand women, and 
one thousand little children, with sixty or seventy 
thousand camels, asses, and horses, marched through 
the narrow valley leading from Arafat, in a cloud of 
dust, carrying a forest of lances, guns, swivels, &c. 


and yet no accident occurred that he knew of, ex- 
cept to himself, — he received, it seems, a couple of 
wounds in his leg. One would have thought that 
Burckhardt's seventy thousand was a prodigious 
number ; yet he tells us, that two onl)'^ of the five or 
SIX regular caravans made their appearance this 
year, — the Syrian and the Egyptian. A-bout four 
thousand pilgrims from Turkey came by sea; and 
perhaps half as many from other distant quarters of 
the Mahommedan world. The Syrian was always 
considered the most numerous. It is stated, that 
when the mother of Motessem b'lllah, the last of the 
Abbassides, performed the pilgrimage in the year of 
the Hejira 631, her caravan was composed of one 
hundred and twenty thousand camels — that in 1814 
consisted of not more than four or five thousand per- 
sons, and fifteen thousand camels. Barthema states 
the Cairo caravan, when he was at Mekka, to have 
amounted to sixty-four thousand camels; — in 1814 
the same caravan consisted mostly of Mahomet All's 
troops, with very few pilgrims. But Burckhardt saysi, 
that in 1816, a single grandee of Cairo joined the 
Hadj with one hundred and ten camels, for the trans- 
port of his baggage and retinue, whose travelling 
expenses alone, he supposes, could not have been 
less than ten thousand pounds. The tents and equip- 
age of the public women and dancing girls were 
among the most splendid in this caravan. The 
Moggrebyn (i. e. Western, or Barbary) caravan, com 
prised, of late years, altogether from six to eight thou- 
sand men (it has been forty thousand) ; in the year 
1814 very few joined it. The Eastern caravan of 
this year consisted chiefly of a large party of Ma- 
lays from Java, Sumatra, and the Malabar coast. A 
solitary Afghan pilgrim, an old man of extraordmary 
strength, had walked all the way from Caubul to 
Mekka, and intended to return in the same manner. 
Vast numbers of Bedouins flock to Mekka at the 
time of the pilgrimage ; and others from every pail 


of Arabia. Many of these pilgrims depend entirely 
for subsistence, both on the journey and at Mekka, 
on begging; others bring some small productions 
from their respective countries for sale. 

" The Moggrebyns, for example, bring their red 
bonnets and woollen cloaks ; the European Turks, 
shoes and slippers, hardware, embroidered stuffs, 
sweetmeats, amber, trinkets of European manufac- 
ture, knit silk purses, &c. ; the Turks of Anatolia 
bring carpets, silks, and Angora shawls; the Per- 
sians, Cashmere shawls and large silk handkerchiefs; 
the Afghans, tooth-brushes, made of the spongy 
boughs of a tree growling in Bokhara, beads of a yel- 
low soapstone, and plain coarse shawls, manufac- 
tured in their own country; the Indians, the nu- 
merous productions of their rich and extensive re- 
gion ; the people of Yemen, snakes for the Persian 
pipes, sandals, and various other works in leather ; 
and the Africans bring various articles adapted to 
the slave trade. 

" When all the required ceremonies have been gone 
through at Mekka, the whole concourse of pilgrims 
repair together on a certain day to Mount Arafat, 
some on camels, some on mules, or asses, and the 
greater number barefooted, this being the most me- 
ritorious way of performing a journey of eighteen or 
twenty miles. ' We were several hours,' says 
Burckhardt, 'before we could reach the outskirts 
of the town, so great was the crowd of camels. Of 
the half-naked Hadjis, all dressed in the white 
ihram — some sat on their camels, mules, or asses, 
reading the Koran, — some ejaculated loud prayers, 
while others cursed their drivers, and quarrelledwith 
those near them, who were choking up the pas- 
sages.' Having cleared a narrow pass in the moun- 
tains, the plain of Arafat opened out. Here the dif- 
ferent caravans began to disperse in search of places 
to pitch their tents. Hadjis were seen in every di- 
rection Avandoring among the tents in search of their 


companions, whom they had lost in the confusion 
along the road ; and it was several hours before the 
noise and clamour had subsided. 

" In the morning, Burckhardt ascended the summit 
of Mount Arafat, from whence he counted aboue 
three thousand tents, dispersed over the plain, of 
which two -thirds belonged to the two Hadj cara- 
vans, and to the suite and soldiers of Mohammed 
Ali ; but the greatest number of tlie assembled mul- 
titudes 'were,' says our traveller, Mike myself, 
without tents.' Those of the wife of Mohammed 
Ali, the mother of Tousoun and Ibrahim Pasha, 
were magnificent, — the transport of her baggage 
alone, from Djidda to Mekka, having required five 
hundred camels. 

" ' Her tent was in fact an encampment, consisting 
of a dozen tents of different sizes, inhabited by her 
women ; the whole enclosed by a wall of linen cloth, 
eight hundred paces in circuit, the single entrance 
of which was guarded by eunuchs in splendid 
dresses. Around this enclosure were pitched the 
tents of the men who formed her numerous suite. 
The beautiful embroidery on the exterior of this 
linen palace, with the various colours displayed in 
every part of it, constituted an object which re- 
minded me of some descriptions in the Arabian Tales 
of a Thousand and One Nights.' 

"Mr. Burckhardt says, he estimated the number of 
persons assembled on the plain at seventy thousand ; 
but whether any, or how many of them, were sup- 
plied by * angels,' he does not say : it is, however, 
deserving of remark, that he is the third traveller 
who mentions the same number. This enormous 
mass, after washing and purifying the body accord- 
ing to law, or going through the motions where 
water was not to be had, now pressed forwards 
towards the mountain of Arafat, and covered its 
sides from top to bottom. At the appointed hour, 
the Cadi of Mekka took his stand on a stone plat- 

APPE>:oix. 221 

fonii on tine top of the mountain, and began his 
sermon, to which the multitude appeared to listen in 
solemn and respectful silence. At every pause, 
however, the assembled multitudes waved the skirts 
of their ihrams over their heads and rent the air 
with shouts of *Lebeyk, allahuma lebeyk!' — 'Here 
we are, at thy commands, O God !' ' During the 
wavings of the ihrams^'' says Burckhardt, ' the side 
of the mountain, thickly crowded as it was by the 
people in their white garments, had the appearance 
of a cataract of water ; wnne the green umbrellas, 
with which several thousand hadjis, sitting on their 
camels below, were provided, bore some resemblance 
to a verdant plain.' The assemblage of such a 
multitude, — to every outward appearance humbling 
themselves in prayer and adoration before God, — 
must be an imposing and impressive spectacle to him 
who first observes it, whether Mahommedan, Chris- 
tian, Jew, or Pagan. 'It was a sight, indeed,' 
says Pitts, * able to pierce one's heart, to behold so 
many in their garments of humility and mortifica- 
tion, with their naked heads and cheeks watered with 
tears, and to hear their grievous sighs and sobs, beg- 
ging earnestly for the remission of their sins.' 
Burckhardt mentions the first arrival of a black 
Darfoor pilgrim at the temple, at the time when it 
was illuminated; and from eight to ten thousand 
persons in the act of adoration, who was so over- 
awed, that, after remaining prostrate for some time, 
* he burst into a flood of tears ; and in the height of 
Ills emotion, instead of reciting the usual prayers 
of the visiter, only exclaimed—" God ! now take 
my soul, for this is paradise !" ' 

"As the sun descended behind the western moun- 
tains, the Cadi shut his book : instantly the crowds 
rushed down the mountains : the tents were struck, 
and the whole mass of pilgrims moved forward 
across the plain on their return. Thousands ot 
torches were now lighted; volkjs of artillery aii(i 


of musketry were fired: sky-rockets innumerable 
were let off ; the Pasha's band of music were played 
till they arrived at a place called Mezdelle, when 
every one lay down on the bare ground where he 
could find a spot. Here another sermon was 
preached, commencing" with the first dawn, and con- 
tinuing till the first rays of the sun appear, when the 
multitude again move forw^ard, with a slow pace, to 
Wady Muna, about three miles off. This is the 
scene for the ceremony of ' throwing stones at the 
Devil ;' every pilgrim must throw seven little stones 
at three several spots in the valley of Muna, or 
twenty-one in the whole; and at each throw repeat 
the words, ' In the name of God ; God is great ; we 
do this to secure ourselves from the Devil and his 
troops.' Joseph Pitts says, ' as I was going to 
throw the stones, a facetious hadji met me ; saith 
he, " You may save your labour at present, if you 
please, for 1 have hit out the Devil's eyes already." ' 
The pilgrims are here shown a rock with a deep split 
in the middle, which was made by the angel turning 
aside the knife of Abraham, when he svas about to 
sacrifice his son Isaac. Pitts, on being told this, 
observes, ' it must have been a good stroke indeed.' 
The pilgrims are taught also to believe, that the cus- 
tom of * stoning the Devil' is to commemorate the 
endeavour of his satanic majesty to dissuade Isaac 
from following his father, and whispering in his ear 
that he was going to slay him. 

" This ' stoning' in the valley of Muna occupies a 
day or two, after which comes the grand sacrifice 
of animals, some brought b}^ the several hadjis, 
others purchased from, the Bedoums for the occasion; 
the throats of which must always be cut with their 
faces towards the Kaaba. At the pilgrim agu in 
question, the number of sheep thus slaughtered *in 
the name of the most merciful God,' is represented 
IS small, amounting only to between six and eight 
fiousand. The historian Kotobeddyn, quoted by 


Burckhardt, relates, that when the Caliph Mokteda 
performed the pilgrimage, in the year of the Hejira 
360, he sacrificed on this occasion forty thousand 
camels and cows, and fifty thousand sheep. Bar- 
thema talks of thirty thousand oxen being slain, and 
their carcasses given to the poor, who appeared to 
him * more anxious to have their bellies filled than 
their sins remitted.' One is at a loss to imagine 
where, in such a miserable country, all these thou- 
sands and tens of thousands of camels, cows, and 
sheep can possibly be subsisted ; the numbers may 
be exaggerated, but there is no question of their 
being very great. The feast being ended, all the 
pilgrims had their heads shaved, threw off the ihram, 
and resumed their ordinary clothing ; a larger fair 
was now held, the valley blazed all night with illu- 
minations, bonfires, the discharge of artillery, and 
fireworks; and the hadjis then returned to Mekka. 
Many of tlie poorer pilgrims, however, remained to 
feast on the offals of the slaughtered sheep. At 
Mecca the ceremonies of the Kaaba and the Dnira 
were again to be repeated, and then the hadj was 
truly perfumed. Burckhardt makes no mention of 
any females becoming hadjis by a visit to Arafat, 
though Ali Bey talks of two thousand. There is no 
absolute prohibition; but from what follows, no great 
encouragement for the fair sex to go through the 

" ' The Mohammedan law prescribes, that no un- 
married woman shall perform the pilgrimage ; and 
that even every married woman must be accompa- 
nied by her husband, or at least by a very near re- 
lation (the Shaffay sect does not even allow the 
latter). Female hadjis sometimes arrive from 
Turkey for the hadj ; rich old widows who wish to 
«ee Mekka before they die ; or women who set ou* 
with their husbands, and lose them on the road by 
disease. In such cases the female finds at Djidda 
delyls (or, as this class is called, Muhallil) ready to 


facilitate their progress through the sacred territory 
in the character of husbands. The marriage con- 
tract is written out before the Kadhy ; and the lady, 
accompanied by her delyl, performs the pilgrimage 
to Mekka, Arafat, and all the sacred places. This, 
however, is understood to be merely a nominal mar- 
riage ; and the delyl must divorce the woman on his 
return to Djidda: if he were to refuse a divorce, the 
law cannot compel him to it, and the marriage would 
be considered binding: but he could no longer ex- 
ercise the lucrative profession of delyl; and my in- 
formant could only recollect two examples of the 
delyl continuing to be the woman's husband. I be- 
lieve there is not any exaggeration of the numlier, 
in stating that there are eight hundred full-grown 
delyls, besides boys who are learning the profession. 
Whenever a shop-keeper loses his customers, or a 
poor man of letters wishes to procure as much 
money as will purchase an Abyssinian slave, he 
turns delyl. The profession is one of little repute ; 
but many a prosperous Mekkawy has, at some period 
of his life, been a member of it.' 

" Burckhardt remained at Mekka a whole month 
after the conclusion of the hadj, at which time it 
appeared like a deserted town. 

" * Of its brilliant shops one-fourth only remained ; 
and in the streets, where a few weeks before it was 
necessary to force one's way through the crowd, not 
a single hadji was seen, except solitary beggars who 
raised their plaintive voices towards the windows of 
the houses which they supposed to be still inhabited. 
Rubbish and filth covered all the streets, and no- 
body appeared disposed to remove it. The skirts 
of the town were crowded with the dead carcasses 
of camels, the smell from which rendered the air, 
even in the midst of the town, offensive, and cer- 
tainly contributed to the many diseases now preva- 

'* Di&ease and moriality, which succeed to the 


fatigues endured on the journey, or are caused by the 
light covering of the ihram, the unhealthy lodgings 
at Mekka, the bad fare, and sometimes absolute 
want, fill the mosque with dead bodies carried thither 
to receive the Imam's prayer, or with sick persons, 
many of whom when their dissolution approaches, 
are brought to the colonnades, that they may either 
be cured by the sight of the Kaaba, or at least to 
have the satisfaction of expiring within the sacred 
enclosure. Poor hadjis, worn out with disease and 
hunger, are seen dragging their emaciated bodies 
along the columns ; and when no longer able to 
stretch forth their hand to ask the passenger for 
charity, they place a bowl to receive alms near the 
mat on which they lay themselves. When they feel 
their last moments approaching, they cover them- 
selves with their tattered garments ; and often a whole 
day passes before it is discovered that they are dead. 
For a month subsequent to the conclusion of the 
hadj, I found, almost every morning, corpses of pil- 
grims lying in the mosque ; myself and a Greek hadji, 
whom accident had brought to the spot, once closed 
the eyes of a poor Moggrebyn pilgrim, who had 
crawled into the neighbourhood of the Kaaba to 
breathe his last, as the Moslems say, ' in the arms 
of the prophet and of the guardian angels.' He inti- 
mated by signs his wish that we should sprinkle 
Zemzem water over him; and while we were doing so 
he expired : half an hour afterward he was buried. 

"The situation of Mekka is singularly unhappy, and 
ill adapted for the accommodation of the numerous 
votaries of Islam that flock thither to perform the 
rites of the pilgrimage. The town is built in a nar- 
row valley, hemmed in by barren mountains ; the 
water of the wells is bitter or brackish ; no pastures 
for cattle are near it ; no land fit for agriculture ; 
and the only resource from which its inhabitants de- 
rive their subsistence is a little traffic, and the 
visits of the hadjis. Mr. Burckhardt estimates 
47—15 S 


the population of the town and suburbs at twenty- 
five to thirty tlioiisand stationary inhabitants, to 
which he adds three or four thousand Abyssinian 
and black slaves. 

" On the whole, notwithstanding- all that Burckhardt 
records as to certain symptoms of enthusiasm in the 
course of his hadj, it is sufficiently plain, that even 
in the original seat of Mahommedanism, the reli- 
gious feeling-s of the people have cooled down con- 
siderably. The educated Moslems every where are 
mostly of the sect of Mahomet Ali of Egypt, nor can 
we have any doubt that all things are thus working 
together for the re-establishment of the true religion 
in the regions where man was first civilized, and 
where the oracles of God were uttered. In the 
mean time, the decline of the arch-heresy of the 
East will be regretted by no one who judges of the 
tree by the fruit. 'A long residence,' says Burck- 
hardt, ' among Turks, Syrians, and Egyptians' (and 
no man knew them better'i 'justifies me in declar- 
ing that they are wholly deficient in virtue, honour, 
and justice ; that they have little true piety, and still 
less charity or forbearance ; an 1 that honesty is only 
to be found in their paupers or idiots.'" 




The word Koran, derived from the verb Kara, to 
read, properly signifies the reading, legend, or that 
'which ought to he read; by which name the Moham- 
medans denote not only the entire book or volume 
of the Koran, but also any particular chapter or sec- 
tion of it, just as the Jews, in their language, call 
the whole Scripture, or any part of it, by the name 
of Karah, or Mikra, words of precisely the same 
origin and import as Koran. This book must be re- 
garded as the code of laws, religion, and morality, 
which Mohammed, in his character of legislator and 
prophet, promulgated to the people of Arabia. As 
it is therefore the only book of law among the Mus- 
sulmans, and comprehends also the religious doc- 
trines which they are taught to believe, it follows, 
that with them a doctor in the law is also a doctor 
in theology, which two professions are wholly inse- 
parable. This law, upon which is founded all their 
theology and jurisprudence, is comprised in the 
Koran, in the same manner as the civil code of the 
Jews is comprised in the five books of Moses. 

The collection of moral traditions, composed of 
the sayings and actions of the prophet, and forming 
a kind of supplement to the Koran, the Moslems call 
the Sonnah; just as the Jews have denominated the 
book containing their oral traditions, the Mishna. 

The entire Koran is divided into one hundred and 
fourteen portions, which are denominated Suras, or 
chapters; and these again into smaller divisions, 
called Ayat, answering nearly, though not exactly, 
to our verses. 

There appears lO be an entire absence of any thing 
like design or method in either the larger or the 


smaller divisions. Neither the time at which they 
were delivered, nor the matter they contain, was the 
rule by which they were arranged. They were, in 
t'a^t, apparently thrown together without order or 
meaning. One verse has seldom any connexion 
with the preceding; and the same subject, unless it 
be some narrative, such as that of Abraham, Joseph, 
or Pharaoh, distorted from the Sacred Scriptures, is 
in no case continued for a dozen verses in succes- 
sion ; each one appears an isolated precept or ex- 
clamation, the tendency and pertinence of which it 
IS often difficult and frequently impossible to dis- 
cover. The first nine titles will convey to the reader 
a fair conception of the arrangement, and something 
of the nature, of the subjects enbraced in the whole. 
1. The Preface. 2. The Cow. 3. The Family of 
Iram. 4. Women. 5. Table. 6. Cattle. 7. Al 
^raf. 8. The Spoils. 9. The Declaration of Im 

As to the plan or structure of this pseudo-revela- 
don, it is remarkable that Mohammed makes God 
Ihe speaker throughout. This should be borne in 
mind by the reader in perusing the extracts given in 
the preceding work. The addresses are for the 
most part made directly to the prophet, informing 
fiim what he is to communicate to his countrymen 
and the world; in other cases, the precepts, pro- 
mises, or threatenings are addressed immediately to 
the unbelievers, or the faithful, according as the 
burden of them applies to the one or the other. The 
following citations may serve as a specimen of the 
whole book. " Now we know that what they speak 
grieveth thee : yet, they do not accuse thee of false- 
hood ; but the ungodly contradict the signs of God. 
And apostles before thee have been accounted liars : 
but they patiently bore their being accounted liars, 
and th:ir being vexed, until our help came unto 
them." " Say, Verily I am forbidden to worship the 
false deities which ye invoke besides God. Say, I 


will not follow your desires; lor ihen should I err, 
neither should I be one of those who are rightly di- 
rected. Say, I believe according to the plain decla- 
ration which I have received from my Lord ; but ye 
have forged lies concerning him." The word 
** Say," which is almost of perpetual occurrence in 
the Koran, is generally prefixed to the sentences or 
paragraphs containing a message to the people ; and 
the word " Answer" is employed where vei any 
hypothetical or foreseen objections are to be ob- 
viated, or any doubtful questions to be resolved. 
" They will ask thee also what they shall bestow in 
alms : answer. What ye have to spare. They will 
also ask thee concerning orphans : answer. To deal 
righteously with them is best ; and if ye intermeddle 
with the management of what belongs to them, do 
them no wrong; they are your brethen: God 
knoweth the corrupt dealer from the righteous ; and 
if God please he will surely distress you, for God is 
mighty and wise." To others the Divine mandates 
are usually couched in the following style : " O men, 
now is the apostle come unto you with truth from 
the Lord ; believe, therefore ; it will be better for 
you." "We have formerly destroyed the genera- 
tions who were before you, O men of Mecca, 
when they had acted unjustly, and our apostles had 
come unto them with evident miracles, and they 
would not believe. Thus do we reward the wicked 
people." " O true believers, wage war against such 
of the infidels as are near you ; and let them find 
severity in you : and know that God is with those 
that fear him." " O true believers, raise not your 
voices above the voice of the prophet ; neither 
speak loud unto him in discourse, as ye speak loud 
unto one another, lest your works become vain, and 
ye perceive it not." 

Immediately after the title, at the head of every 
chapter, with the single exception of the ninth, is 
prefixed the solemn fomu **In the name or the 

230 API j^NDIX. 

MOST MERCIFUL GoD." This fomi is called by the 
Mohammedans, Bismillah, and is invariably ^.aced 
by them at the beginning of all their books and 
writings in general, as a peculiar mark or distin- 
guishing characteristic of their religion: it being 
deemed a species of impiety to omit it. The Jews, 
for the same purpose, make use of the form, " In the 
name of the Lord," or, " In the name of the great 
God :" and the Eastern Christians that of, " In the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 

In its general outline of facts, the Koran corres 
ponds with the Old Testament in the following his 
torical details : the accounts of the creation of the 
world ; of the fall of Adam ; of the general deluge ; 
of the deliverance of Noah and his family in the 
ark ; the call of Abraham ; the stories of Isaac and 
Ishmael ; of Jacob and the patriarchs ; the selec 
tion of the Jews as God's chosen people ; the pro- 
phetic office, miracles, and administration of Moses ; 
the inspiration and authority of the Hebrew hi-sto- 
rians, prophets, and psalmists, especially of David 
and Solomon ; and, lastly, of the promise of the ad- 
vent of the Messiah, with many of the accompany- 
ing predictions respecting it. 

Again, with the New Testament the Koran con- 
curs in the recognition of Jesus Christ as the pro- 
mised Messiah of the Jews ; in his miraculous con- 
ception by the breath or Spirit of God ; his imma 
culate nativity of the Virgin Mary; his title of 
Logos, or Word of God ; in the miraculous birth of 
Tohn the Baptist, son of !2echarias, as his forerunner ; 
in his performance of many mighty signs and mira- 
cles, such as healing the sick, raising the dead, and 
controlling and casting out devils ; in his rejection 
and persecution by his own countrymen ; his con- 
demnation to the death of the cross ; his bodily as- 
cension into heaven ; his officiating there as a Me- 
diator and Intercessor between God and man, and 


as Judge of all men at the last day. After the ex- 
ample, however, of some of the ancient heretics, 
Mohammed, as appears from the following passages^ 
denied the reality of the Saviour's crucifixion: — 
" And for that they have not believed in Jesus, and 
have spoken against Mary a grievous calumny; and 
have said, Verily we have slain Christ Jesus, the 
son of Mary, the apostle of God ; yet they slew him 
not, neither crucified him, but he was represented 
by one in his likeness. They did not really kill 
him; but God took him up to himself: and God is 
mighty and wise." " And the Jews devised a stra- 
tagem against him ; but God devised a stratagem 
against them ; and God is the best deviser of stra- 
tagems." This stratagem, according to the Mos- 
lems, was God's taking Jesus up into heaven, and 
stamping his likeness on another person, who was 
apprehended and crucified in his stead. Their con- 
stant tradition is, that it was not Jesus himself who 
underwent that ignominious death, but somebody else 
in his shape and resemblance. 

These numerous coincidences of the Koran with 
the facts and doctrines of the Bible are strangely 
interspersed with matter the most incongruous; 
with extravagant fables, monstrous perversions of 
the truth, and ridiculous and endless puerilities. 
This is accounted for on the supposition, that while 
the authentic facts were derived immediately from 
the canonical Scriptures, the fictions and absurdities 
were deduced in part from the traditions of the Tal- 
mudic and Rabbinical writers ; and in part from the 
apocryphal Gospels, or from the books of Adam, of 
Seth, of Enoch, of Noah, and other similar fabrica- 
tions, well known in church history as having been 
extensively in use among the heretics of the first 

A specimen or two of the manner in which some of 
the best-known narratives of the Old Testament ap- 
pear in the Koran, may not be unsuitably adduced here 


"Our messengers also came formerly unto Abra- 
ham with fi^ood tidings. They said, Peace be upon 
thee. And he answered, And on you be peace ! and 
he tarried not, but brought a roasted calf. And his 
wife Sarah was standing by; and she laughed: and 
we promised her Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob. She 
said, Alas ! shall I bear a son, who am old : this my 
husband also being advanced in years 1 Verily, this 
would be a wonderful thing. The angels answered, 
Dost thou wonder at the effect of the command of 
God ? The mercy of God and his blessings be upon 
you. And when his apprehension had departed from 
Abraham, and the good tidings of Isaac's birth had 
come unto him, he disputed with us concerning the 
people of Lot ; for Abraham was a pitiful, compas- 
sionate, and devout person. The angels said unto 
him, O Abraham, abstain from this ; for now is the 
command of thy Lord come, to put their sentence in 
execution, and an inevitable punishment is ready to 
fall upon them. And when our messengers came 
unto Lot, he was troubled for them; and his arm 
was straitened concerning them ; and he said. This 
is a grievous day. And his people came unto him, 
rushing upon him : and they had formerly been guilty 
of wickedness. Lot said unto them, O my people, 
these my daughters are more lawful for you : there- 
fore fear God, and put me not to shame by wronging 
my guests. Is there not a man of prudence among 
you? They answered. Thou knowest that we have 
no need of thy daughters ; and thou well knowest 
what we would have. He said. If I had strength 
sufficient to oppose thee, or I could have recourse 
unto a powerful support, I would certainly do it. 
I'he angels said, Lot, verily we are the messen 
gers of thy Lord ; they shall by no means come in 
unto thee. Go forth, therefore, with thy family, in 
some part of the night, and let not any of you turn 
back : but as for thy wife, that shall happen unto hei 
which shall happen unto them. Verily, the predic- 


tion of their punishment shall be fulfilled in the 

" And Abraham said, Verily, I am going unto my 
Lord who will direct me. O Lord, grant me a 
righteous issue ! Wherefore we acquainted him 
that he should have a son, who should be a meek 
youth. And when he had attained to years of dis- 
cretion, and could join in acts of religion with him, 
Abraham said unto him, O my son, verily I saw in a 
dream that I should offer thee in sacrifice : consider 
therefore what thou art of opinion I should do. He 
answered, O my father, do what thou art commanded: 
thou shalt find me, if God please, a patient person. 
And when they had submitted themselves to the 
divine will, and Abraham had laid his son prostrate 
on his face, we cried unto him, Abraham, now 
hast thou verified the vision. Thus do we reward 
the righteous. Verily, this was a manifest trial. 
And we ransomed him with a noble victim." 

The following passage may serve to illustrate the 
correspondence of the Koran with the historical re- 
lations of the New Testament : — 

" Zacharias called on his Lord, and said. Lord, 
give me from thee a good offspring, for thou art the 
hearer of prayer. And the angels called to him, 
while he stood praying in the chamber, saying. 
Verily, God promiseth thee a son, named John, who 
shall bear witness to the word which cometh from 
God ; an honourable person, chaste, and one of the 
righteous prophets. He answered. Lord, how shaiJ 
I have a son, when old age hath overtaken me, and 
my wife is barren 1 The angel said. So God dotli 
that which he pleaseth. Zacharias answered. Lord, 
give me a sign. The angel said. Thy sign shall be, 
that thou shalt speak unto no man for three days^ 
otherwise than by gesture. And when the angels 
said, O Mary, verily, God hath chosen thee, and hath 
purified thee, and hath chosen thee above all the 
women of the world : when the angels said, Mary, 


verily, God sendetli thee good tidings, that thou 
shalt bear the word, proceeding from himself; his 
name shall be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary ; honour- 
able in this world and in the world to come, and one 
of those who approach near to the presence of God : 
She answered. Lord, how shall I have a son, since 
a man hath not touched me ? The angel said, So 
God createth that which he pleaseth : when he de- 
creeth a thing, he only saith unto it. Be, and it is : 
God shall teach him the Scripture, and wisdom, and 
the law, and the Gospel ; and he shall appoint him 
his apostle to the children of Israel." 

But besides agreements with the Old and New 
Testaments of this palpable kind, the Koran betrays 
its obligations to the sacred volume by numerous 
coincidences, more or less direct, with the senti- 
ments, the imagery, and the phraseology of Scrip- 
ture. Indeed, the most interesting light in which 
the Koran is to be viewed is as a spurious resem- 
blance of the inspired oracles of Jews and Christians. 
The extent to which the Bible of Mohammedans 
is made up of plagiarisms from the true revelation 
can scarcely be conceived by one who has not insti- 
tuted a special inquiry into the contents of each, 
with the express design of tracing the analogy be- 
tween them. Of the fact, however, of the Koran 
being constructed, in great measure, from the mate- 
rials furnished by the Old and New Testaments, no 
one can doubt, who is assured that the following is 
but a specimen of hundreds of similar correspon- 
dencies which might easily be made out between 
the two. 


Take heed that ye do not your Make not your alms of none 

alms before men to be seen of them ; effect, by reproaching or mischief; 

otherwise ye iiave no reward of as he that layeth out what he hath, 

your Father which is in heaven. to appear unto men to give alms. 

Jesus of Nazareth, a man ap- We gave unto Jesus, the son of 

proved of God among you by mira- Mary, manifest signs, and strengtk^ 

eles and wonders, and signs woich ened him with the Holy Spirit. 
God did by him. 





Thou Shalt give life for life, tooth 
for tooth, foot for foot, burning for 
burning, wound for wound, stripe 
for stripe. 

But their minds were blinded: 
for until this day remaineth the 
same veil untaken away in the read- 
ing of the Old Testament-. But 
even unto this day when Moses is 
read, the veil is upon their heart. 

They said therefore unto him, 
What sign shewest thou then, that 
we may see and believe thee / 

In the beginning God created the 
heaven and the earth. And God 
said, Let there be light, and there 
was light. 

And when he (Moses) was full 
forty years old, it came into his 
heart to visit his brethren, the chil- 
ren of Israel. 

And in the latter time of their 
kingdom, when the transgressors 
are come to the ftill, a king of fierce 
countenance, and understanding 
dark sentences, shall stand up. 

I will open my mouth in para- 
bles; I will utter things which 
have been kept secret from the 
foundation of the world. 

And the seventh angel sounded ; 
and there were great voices in 
heaven, saying. The kingdoms of 
this world are become the king- 
doms of our Lord and of his Christ. 

For behold, I created new heavens 
and a new earth. We look for new 
heavens and a new earth. I will 
cause you to come up out of your 
graves. And every man shall re- 
ceive his own reward according to 
his own labour. 

I was envious at the foolish when 
I saw the prosperity of the vvricked. 
Ttms my heart was grieved. 

If thou. Lord, ehouldst mark ini- 
quities, O Lord who shall stand ? 

We have therein commanded 
them that they should give life for 
life, and eye for eye, and no«e for 
nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for 
tooth, and that wounds should be 
punished by retaliation. 

There is of them who hearkeneth 
unto thee when thou readest the 
Koran ; but we have cast veils 
over their hearts, that they should 
not understand it, and deaftiess in 
their ears. 

The infidels say. Unless some 
sign be sent down unto him from 
his Lord, we will not believe. 

It is he who hath created the 
heavens and the earth : And when- 
ever he sayeth unto a thing, Be, it 

I have already dwelt among vou 
to the age of forty years bef'^re I 
received it (the Koran), bo ye 
therefore not understand ? 

According to thy dream s'nall thy 
Lo^'*^ ^hoose thee and teach thee 
trie interpretation of dark sa}1ngs. 

We taughi him the interpreta- 
tion of dark sayings, bu« the greater 
part of men do not understand. 

O Lord, thou hast given me a 
part of the kingdom, and hast 
taught me the interpretation of dark 

And his will be the kingdom on 
the day whereon the trumpet shall 
be sounded. 

The day will come when the 
earth shall be changed into another 
earth, and the heavens into other 
heavens ; and men shall come forth 
from their graves to appear before 
the only, the mighty God. That 
God may reward every soul accord 
ing to what it shall have deserved. 

Cast not thine eyes on the good 
things which we have bestowed on 
several of the unbelievers, so as to 
covet the same ; neither be thoi 
grieved on their account. 

If God should punish men (br 
their iniquity, he would not lear* 
on the earth uny moving thing 




Dial thou art, and unto dust 
■halt thou return. 

The merciftil doeth good to his 
own soul ; but he that is cruel 
troubleth his own flesh. 

Not rendering evil for evil, but 
contrariwise, blessing. 

Call ye on the name of your gods, 
and I will call on the name of the 
Lord. And they cried aloud. And it 
came to pass that there was neither 
voice nor any to answer. 

All that are in the graves shall 
hear his voice, and shall come forth. 
All nations shall be gathered be- 
fore him. 

But, beloved, be not ignorant of 
this one thing, that one day is with 
the Lord as a thousand years, and 
a thousand years as one day. 

Go to, now, ye that say, To-day 
or to-morrow we will go into such 
4 city, and contmue there a year ; 
and buy and sell and get gain : 
Whereas ye know not what shall 
toe on the morrow. For that ye 
ought to say, If the Lord will, we 
Mhall live and do this or ^hat. 

But of that day and that hour 
knoweth no man ; no, not the an- 
gels which are in heaven, neither 
the Son, but the Father 


Out of the ground have w 
created you, and to the same wiU 
we cause you to return. 

If ye do well, ye will do well l« 
your own souls ; and if ye do evil, 
ye will do it unto the same. 

Turn aside evil with that which 
is better. 

And it shall be said unto the 
idolaters, call now upon those 
whom ye have associated with 
God: and they shall call upon 
them but they shall not answer. 

And the trumpet shall be sounded 
again, and behold they shall come 
forth from their graves, and shall 
hasten unto the Lord. 

But God will not fail to perform 
what he hath threatened : ann ve- 
rily one day with the Lord is a« a 
thousand years of those which ye 

Say not of any matter, I will 
surely do this ro-morrow ; unless 
thou add. If God please. 

They will ask thee concerning 
the last hour ; at what time its 
coming is fixed? Answer, Verily, 
the knowledge thereof is with my 
Lord ; none shall declare the fixed 
time thereof except he. 

From the foregoing examples it will appear mani- 
fest, that the plagiarisms of the Koran are not limited 
to the leading facts and narratives of the Bible, but 
extend to many of its minuter peculiarities ; to its 
modes of thought, its figures of speech, and even to 
its very forms of expression. Yet, in several in- 
stances, we meet with such egregious blunders, as 
to plain matters of fact, stated in the sacred volume, 
as must convict the copyist of the most arrant igno- 
rance, or of downright falsification. Thus he makes 
the prophet Elijah (Al Kedr) contemporary with 


Moses, Tshmael to have been offered in sacrifice in- 
stead ol Isaac, Saul to have led the ten thousand 
down to the river's brink instead of Gideon, and, by 
the most monstrous anachronism represents Mary, 
the mother of Jesus, to have been the same person 
with Miriam, the sister of Moses ! 

The palpable obligations of this spurious revela- 
tion to Holy Writ, and the real or supposed incom- 
petence of its nominal fabricator, have very natu- 
rally given birth to inquiries into the history of its 
composition. The great mass of writers on Mo- 
hammedanism, following the opinion of the Eastern 
Christians, have generally agreed in supposing that in 
the construction of the Koran, the Prophet was in- 
debted to the assistance of one or more accomplices. 
It is certain, from the pages of the work itself, that this 
was objected to him at the outset of his career. " We 
also know that they say. Verily a certain man teacheth 
him to compose the Koran." " And the unbelievers 
say. This Koran is no other than a forgery, which 
he hath contrived : and other people have assisted 
him therein: but they utter an unjust thing and a 
falsehood." But this emphatic disclaimer of the 
Apostle has failed to produce conviction. The un- 
believers of Christendom have continued to side 
with those of Mecca, and as many as eight or ten 
different persons have been designated as having 
been, some one or more of them, associated with 
the impostor in the promulgation of his counterfeit 
oracles. The more general belief has been, that Mo- 
hammed received his principal aid from a Nestorian 
monk, named Sergius, supposed to be the same per- 
son as the Boheira, with whom he became ac- 
quainted at an early period of his life, at Bosra, in 
Syria. On this, the learned Sale remarks : " If Bo- 
heira and Sergius were the same men, I find not the 
least intimation in the Mohammedan writers, that 
he ever quitted his monastery to go into Arabia, 
and his acquaintance with Mohammed at Bosra was 

238 ArPENDIX. 

too early to favour the surmise of his assisting him in 
the Koran, though Mohammed might, from his dis- 
course, gain some knowledge of Christianity and 
the Scriptures, which might be of some use to him 
therein." The same writer, however, admits with 
Prideaux and others, thai while Mohammed is to be 
considered as the original projector and the real 
author of the Koran, he may have been assisted, in 
some measure, by others, though his successful pre- 
cautions of secrecy make it impossible to determine, 
at this day, by what agents, or to what extent, this 
was done. After all, the assertions advanced in 
respect to the part borne by others in the conipo- 
fsition of the Koran have never been authenticated 
by proofs, and the w^hole story has the air of an 
hypothesis framed to meet the difficulties of the 
case. And even were the popular belief on this 
question to be admitted, it would not do away all the 
difficulties which embarrass the subject. For who 
was capable, in that dark period, of producing such 
a work 1 This pretended revelation, independently 
of its plagiarisjns from our Scriptures, contains pas- 
sages as much superior to any remains, w^hether 
Jewish or Christian, of ttie literature of the seventh 
century, as they are utterly inferior to the contents 
of that sacred volume which the Koran blasphe- 
mously assumes to resemble and supplant. The 
whole subject, therefore, of the origin of this re- 
markable book, with the history of its composition, 
as well as the question how far Mohammed was ac- 
quainted with the Christian Scriptures, must doubt- 
less remain an unsolved problem to the end of time. 
Of the literary merits of the Koran, a fair esti- 
mate is not easily to be formed from a translation. 
By those who are acquainted with the original, it is 
universally acknowledged to possess distinguished 
excellences, which cannot be transfused into any 
other language. It is confessedly the standard of 
ihe Arabic tongue ; is written, for the most part, in 


a pure and eleg^ant style, abounding: with bold figures 
after the oriental manner ; and aiming at a concise- 
ness which often renders it obscure. Though writ- 
ten in prose, the sentences usually conclude in a 
long continued rhjnue, for the sake of which, the 
sense is often interrupted, and unnecessary repeti- 
tions introduced. This feature of the composition, 
though a disadvantage and a deformity to a transla- 
tion, is one of its superlative charms in the estimate 
of the native Arabs, whose ear is singularly sus- 
ceptible to the harmony of the rhythmical cadences 
with which the periods conclude. 

When we pass from the mere sound and diction 
which mark " the perspicuous book," it is indubitable 
that its finest passages are devoid of the merit of 
originality. Sir William Jones remarks ; " Tbe 
Koran indeed shines with a borrowed light, since 
most of its beauties are taken from our Scriptures ; 
but it has great beauties, and the Mussulmans will 
not be convinced that they are borrowed." In de- 
scribing the majesty and the attributes of God, and 
the variety and grandeur of the creation, it often 
rises to an impressive elevation ; but in almost every 
instance of this kin ^ it is evident that some pas- 
sage of inspiration of corresponding import was in 
the eye of the writer, and the copy is invariably in- 
ferior to the original. Yet the result of a candid 
examination of this pseudo-bible of Mohammedans, 
even in our English version, would probably be a more 
favourable impression of the book on the score of 
its composition, and a conviction that amid the mul- 
titude and heinousness of its defects, scarcely com- 
mon justice had been done by Chri3tian writers 
either to the character of its beauties, or the extent in 
which they obtain. Taken however as a whole, so 
far from supporting its arrogant claims to a super- 
human origin and eloquence, it sinks below the level 
of many confessedly human productions, to be found 
in different languages and regions of the earth? 


"With occasional passages of real beauty an6 
power, it is, on the whole, a strange medley, in 
which the sublime is so nearly allied to the bom- 
bastic, the pathetic to the ludicrous, the terrible to 
the absurd, that each chapter, each page, almost each 
paragraph, is sure to give rise to the most opposite 
emotions. Respect, contempt, admiration, abhor- 
rence, so rapidly succeed each other, in the perusal, 
as to leave no fixed or uniform impression on the 



(From Morgan's Mahometism Explained.) 

The articles of our faith which every good Mus- 
sulman is bound to believe and to receive with an 
entire assurance are thirteen in number, whereof the 
first and principal is, 

I. — Of God's Existence, 

To believe from the heart, to confess with the 
tongue, and with a voluntary and steadfast mind to 
affirm, that there is but one only God, Lord and Go- 
vernor of the universe, who produced all things from 
nothing, in whom there is neither image nor re- 
semblance, who never begot any person whatsoever, 
as he himself was begotton by none ; who, as he 
never was a son, so he never hath been a father. It 
is this Lord and Sovereign Arbiter of ail things 
whom we Mussulmans are bound to serve and adore • 
so that none among us may deviate from this arti- 
cle, but every one must imprint it deeply in hi> 
heart ; for it is unquestionable. 

IL — Of the Prophet Mahomet ayid the Koran, 

( We must believe from our hearts and confess witli 
\our mouths that the Most High God, after having 
Jrevealed himself to mankind by his ancient pro* 
. phets, sent us at length his Elected, the blessed 
^ Mahomet, with the sacred and divine law% which 
through his grace he had created, the which is con- 
tained in the venerable Koran, that hjith been from 
him remitted unto us. By this holy law it is that 
God hath abolished all the preceding ones, and hatb 
47^16 T 


withdrawn from their doubts and errors all nationi 
and people in order to guide them to a firm and last- 
ing state of happiness. Wherefore we are obliged 
exactly to follow the precepts, rites, and ceremo- 
nies thereof, and to abandon every other sect or reli- 
gion whatsoever, whether instituted before or since 
this final revelation. By this article we are distin- 
guished and separated from all sorts of idolatry, lying 
rhapsodies, and false prophecies, and from all those 
sects, societies, and religions different from ours, 
which are either erroneous, abrogated, or exagger- 
ated, void of faith, and without truth. 

III. — Of Providence and Predestination. 
We must firmly believe and hold as a certainty 
that, except God himself who always was and always 
shall be, every thing shall one day be annihilated, 
and that the Angel of death shall take to himself 
the souls of mortals destined to a total and uni- 
versal extinction,* by the command of God, our 
powerful Lord and Master, who was able and hath 
vouchsafed to produce out of nothing, and in fine to 
set in form this universal world, with all things 
therein contained, both good and evil, sweet and 
bitter ; and hath been pleased to appoint two angels, 
the one on the right, and the other on the left, to 
register the actions of every one of us, as well the 
good as the bad, to the end that judicial cognizance 
may be taken thereof, and sentence pronounced 
thereupon, at the great day of judgment. It is there- 
fore necessary to believe predestination: but it is 
not permitted to discourse thereof to any whom- 
soever, till after being perfectly well versed in the 
study of our written law, viz. the Koran, and of our 
Sonnah, which is our oral law. Seeing then all 
things are to have an end, let us do good works, and 
deport ourselves so that we may live for ever. 

* Notwithstanding this annihilation, it is taught in the Koran that aU 
Intelligont creatures will be reproduced ngain at the resurrection. 


IV. — Of the Interrogation in the Grave, 

We must truly and firmly believe and hold as cei- 
tain and assured, the Interrogation of the sepulchre, 
which will after death be administered to every one 
of us by two angels upon these four important ques- 
tions: — 1. Who was our Lord and our God? 2. 
Who was our Prophet ? 3. Which was our reli- 
gion ? 4. On what side was our Keblah ] He who 
shall be in a condition to make answer, that God 
was his only Lord, and Mahomet his Prophet, shall 
find a great illumination in his tomb, and shall him- 
self rest in glory. But he who shall not make a pro- 
per answer to these questions shall be involved in 
darkness until the day of judgment. 

V. — Of the Future Dissolution. 

We must heartily believe and hold as certain, that 
not only shall all things one day perish and be anni- 
hilated, viz. angels, men, and devils, but likewise 
this shall come to pass at the end of the world, when 
the angel Israfil shall blow the trumpet in such 
sort that except the Sovereign God none of the 
universal creation shall remain alive immediately 
after the dreadful noise, which shall cause the moun- 
tains to tremble, the earth to sink, and the sea to be 
changed to the colour of blood. In this total extinc- 
tion, the last who shall die will be Azarael, the Angel 
of death ; and the power of the Most High God wilJ 
be evidently manifested. 

VI. — Of the Future Resurrection. 

We are obliged cordially to believe and to hold for 
certain, that the first before all others whom God 
ehall revive in heaven shall be the Angel of death ; 
and that he will at that time recall all the souls in 
general, and reunite them to the respective bodies to 


which each belonged ; some of which shall be des- 
tined to glory, and others to torment. But upon 
earth, the first whom God will raise shall be our 
blessed prophet Mahomet. As for the earth itself, 
it shall open on all sides, and shall be changed in a 
moment ; and by God's command fire shall be 
kindled in every part thereof, which shall be ex- 
tended to its utmost extremities. God will then 
prepare a vast plain, perfectly level, and of sufficient 
extent to contain all creatures summoned to give an 
account of their past conduct. May this solemn, 
definite, and irrevocable judgment awaken us from 
our security ; for to nothing that hath been created 
shall favour be showed. Every soul shall be judged 
there by the same rule, and without exception of 

VII. — Of the Day of Judgment 

We must believe from our hearts and hold for 
certain, that there shall be a day of judgment, 
whereon God shall ordain all nations to appear in a 
place appointed for this great trial, of sufficient vast- 
ness that His Majesty may there be evident in splen- 
dour. It is in this magnificent and spacious station 
that the universal assembly of all creatures shall be 
made, about the middle of the day, and in the bright- 
ness of noon : and then it is, that accompanied by 
his prophet (Mohammed), and in the presence of all 
mankind, God shall with justice and equity judge 
all the nations of the earth in general, and every 
person in particular. To this eflbct, every one of 
us shall have a book or catalogue of our actions de- 
livered to us ; that of the good in such wise that it 
shall be re( eived and held in the right hand ; that of 
the wicked^ so that it shall be received and held in 
the left hand. As to the duration of that day, it 
shall be as long as the continuance of the present 
age. This shall be a day of sighs aHd griefs, a day 
of tribulation and anguish, when the cup of sorrovf 


and misery must be drunk up, even the very dregs 
thereof. But this is what shall be particularly ex- 
perienced by the ungodly and the perverse ; every 
thing shall present to them ideas of sorrow and 
affliction. To them every thing shall become aloes 
and bitterness. They shall not obtain one moment 
of repose. They shall behold nothing that is agree- 
able, nor hear one voice that shall delight them : 
their eyes shall see nothing but the torments of hell; 
their ears shall hear nothing but the cries and bowl- 
ings of devils ; and their terrified imaginations shall 
represent unto them nothing but spectres and 

VIII. — OfMahomefs Intercession. 

We are bound to believe, and hold as certain, that 
our venerable prophet Mahomet shall with success 
intercede for his people at the great day of examina- 
tion. This will be the first intercession ; but at the 
second, God will be entirely relented, and all the 
faithful Mussulmans shall be transported into a state 
of glory, while not one excuse or supplication in 
behalf of other nations shall be accepted. As to the 
greatness of pain which those among us are to un- 
dergo, who have been offenders by transgressing the 
precepts of the Koran, it is known to God alone, as 
there is none but Him who exactly knoweth how long 
the same is to continue, whether its duration shall be 
more or less than that of the examination or judg- 
ment. But to us it belongeth to shorten its con- 
tinuance by good works, by our charity, and by all 
the endeavours we are capable of. 

IX. — Of the future Compensation at the last Judgment. 

We must sincerely believe, and hold as a certainty, 
that we must every one of us give up our accounts 
before God, concerning the good and evil we 
have transacted in this world. All who have been 


followers of Mahomet shall be before all others 
summoned to this examination, because they it will 
be who shall bear witness against all other strange 
nations. It shall come to pass on that day, that 
God will take away out of the balance of him who 
has slandered his brother some of the good works, 
and put them unto that of him who hath been slan- 
dered ; and if the slanderer is found to have no good 
works, he will then deduct from the punishment of 
the slandered, to include them in the list of those 
of the slanderer, insomuch that his great justice will 
be fully manifest. At least, then, that we not run 
the hazard of this terrible compensation, let us not 
think of wronging others, or of diminishing thejr 
substance, their honour, or their good name. 

X. — Of the Balance, and of Purgatory, 

We must believe from the heart, and confess with 
the mouth, that all our actions, good and bad, shall 
one day be weighed in the balance, the one against 
the other, insomuch that those whose good works 
outweigh their bad shall enter into Paradise ; and 
that, on the contrary, they whose bad works shall 
outweigh their good shall be condemned to the 
flames of hell. And for those whose scales shall be 
equally poised, because the good they have done is 
equivalent to the evil, they shall be detained in a 
station situate in the middle, between Paradise and 
hell, where consideration will be ^made both of their 
merits and of their demerits, since besides their 
being confined in that place, they shall have no 
punishment inflicted on them, nor shall they enjoy 
any part of the glory ordained for the beatified 
righteous. It is true that all those among that num- 
ber who are Mussulmans shall be at length released 
from their captivity, and shall be introduced into 
Paradise at the second intercession of our blessed 
prophet Mahomet, whose great compassion will 

AppEiifDix. 247 

be signalized by his engaging, in ordet to our rc- 
demi)iion, to supplicate the power and the mercy of 
the Most High, as well as his justice, already satis- 
fied by the long captivity of the criminals. Where- 
fore let us from henceforward weigh our good 
works, to the end that we may assiduously strive to 
increase their weight, and that they may have the 
advantage over the bad. 

XI. — Of the Sharp-edged Bridge, and the unavoidable 
passage thereof. 

We are obliged to believe from our hearts and to 
hold as assured, that all mankind in tjie world must 
pass one day over the Sharp-edged Bridge, whose 
length shall be equal to that of this world, whose 
breadth shall not exceed that of one single thread 
of a spider's web, and whose height shall be propor- 
tionable to its extent. The righteous shall pass over 
it swifter than a flash of lightning ; but the impious 
and the ungodly, shall not, in as much time as the 
present age shall endure, be able to surmount the 
diflUculties thereof, and that through the want of 
good works. For which reason, they shall fall and 
precipitate themselves into hell-fire, in company 
with the infidels and blasphemers, with those of 
little faith and bad conscience, who have done few 
deeds of charity, because they were void of virtue. 
There shall be some among the good, notwithstand- 
ing, whose passage shall be lighter and swifter than 
that of many others, who shall therein meet with 
temptations and obstructions from every precept 
which they shall have ill-observed in this life. Good 
God ! how dreadful to our sight will this formidable 
bndge appear! What virtue, what secret grace 
from the Most High shall we not need to be enabled 
to pass over it ? 


XII. — Of Paradise. 

We are to believe and to hold for a certainty, that 
God did create a Paradise which he prepared for the 
blessed, from among- the number of the faithful, by 
which are meant the followers of the true religion, 
and of our holy prophet, Mahomet ; where with him 
they shall be placed in perpetual light, and in the 
enjoyment of heavenly delights ; for ever beautiful 
in the vigour of their age, and brighter than the sun ; 
and where tliey shall be found worthy to contem- 
plate and adore the face of the Most High God. As 
for those who shall be detained in the tortures of 
hell, to wit, the sinners and transgressors, who have 
nevertheless believed in one only God, they shall be 
released at the second intercession of the prophet, by 
whom they shall immediately be washed in the 
sacred laver, from whence being come forth whiter 
than snow and more refulgent than the sun, they 
shall, with the rest of the blessed, behold them- 
selves seated in paradise, there to enjoy all the 
glory they can desire. This is what shall befall the 
body composed of clay ; and what then shall be the 
state of our souls ] To the which it shall be granted 
eternally to behold the light and brightness of the 
divine majesty. Let us then endeavour to do works 
of such a character, that we may have no cause to 
fear hell-fire. Let us, I say, chiefly apply ourselves 
to good works, let us not refuse to exert our utmost 
strength in the exact observation thereof, and of the 
fast of our venerable month of Ramadan, and of the 
prayers and ceremonies which are ordained ; and 
let us not defraud the poor of a tenth of all our 

Xllh-^Of Hell. 

We must sincerely believe and hold for certam, 
that there is a hell prepared for the unrighteous, the 
refractory transgressors of the divine law, accursed 


of God for their evil works, and for whom it would 
have been better had they never have been born, and 
to have never seen the light of day. It is for such 
as those that a place of torment is appointed, or 
rather a fire which burneth without touching them, 
a fire of ice and north winds, where there shall be 
nothing but snakes and serpents, with other venom- 
ous and ravenous creatures, which shall bite them 
without destroying them, and shall cause them to 
feel grievous pains. That place shall be the abode 
of the impious and of the devils, where these shall, 
with all sorts of cruelty and rage, incessantly tor 
ture those ; and lest the sense of their pain should 
cause them to relent, a new skin shall continually 
succeed in the stead of that which has been burned 
or mortified. It is for us Mussulmans to conceive 
and entertain a just horror of this detestable place, 
such reflections are the duty of all God's servants. 
As for those others who have declared war against 
our religion, they shall one day feel the torments ot 
hell. Let us all dread this punishment and these 
frightful terrors. Let us confirm our faith by the 
sentiments of our hearts, and by the confession of 
our tongues, and let us engrave it in the bottom of 
our souls. U 

950 4PPENDir. 



(Collected chiefly from Prideaox.) 

Abul Faragius ; a physician of Malatia, in Lesser 
Armenia, of the Christian religion, and of the sect of 
the Jacobites. He is a writer of distinguislied note 
in the East, both among Mohammedans and Chris- 
tians. His Historia Dynastarum embraces the pe- 
riod from the creation of the world to the year of 
our Lord 1284. He flourished near the close of the 
13lh century, about the time when his History ends. 
His work was published in 4to at Oxford, A. D. 1663, 
with a Latin Version by Dr. Pocock. His entire 
name is Gregorius Ebn Hakim Abul Faragii. He 
is thus spoken of by Gibbon. " Yet in that long 
period some strangers of merit have been con- 
verted to the Monophysite faith, and a Jew was the 
father of Abul Pharagius, primate of the East, so 
truly eminent in his life and death. In his life, he 
was an elegant writer of the Syriac and Arabic 
tongues, a poet, a physician, and historian, a subtle 
philosopher, and a moderate divine. In his death, 
his funeral was attended by his rival, the Nestorian 
patriarch, with a train of Greeks and Armenians 
who forgot their disputes, and mingled their tears 
over the grave of an enemy.'"* 

Abul Feda; an author eminently distinguished 
among the oriental writers for two works well known 
among the learned ; the one, a General Geography 
of the world, after the method of Ptolemy ; the other 

♦ Decline and Fall, vol.v. p. 508, DubU" edition, 1788 


a General History, which he calls the Epitome of 
the History of Nations. He was born A. D. 1273, 
and finished his Geography A. D. 1321. Twenty 
years afterward he was advanced to the principality 
of Hamah, in Syria, from whence he is commonly 
called Shahah Hamah, i. e. prince of Hamah, when 
after a reign of three years and two months, he died 
A. D. 1345, aged seventy-two. He was by nation a 
Turk, of the noble family of the Jolidae, from which 
also Saladin, the famous Sultan of Egypt was de- 
scended. Ecchelensis quotes him by the name of 
Ishmael Shiahinshiah* 

Abunazar ; a legendary writer among the Mohanji- 
medans, often quoted by Hottinger. 

Agar; the name of a book of great authority 
among the Mussulmans, containing an account of 
the life and death of Mohammed. Johannes An- 
dreas makes great use of it under the name of Azaer 
as does Bellonius in the third book of his Observa- 
tions, under the name of Asaer. Guadagnl, who 
had a copy of the work, draws from it the most of 
the particulars which he objects against the life and 
actions of Mohammed. 

Ahmed Ebn Edris ; an author who wrote in the 
defence of the Mohammedan religion against the 
Christians and the Jews. 

Ahmed Ebn Yuseph ; a historian who flourished 
A. D. 1599, when he completed his history. 

Ahmed Ebn Zin Alabedin ; a nobleman of Ispa- 
han, in Persia, of the sixteenth century, who wrote 
one of the acutest works against the Christian reli- 
gion and in defence of the Mohammedan, ever pub- 
lished. Jernimo Xavier, a Jesuit Missionary to the 
court of Ecbar, Great Mogul, had written in the 
Persian language, two works in favour of Chistian- 
ity, one entitled, the History of Jesus Christ, collected 
for the most part out of the legends of the church 
of Rome : the other called A Looking-Glass of the 
Truths intended as a defence of the Gospel again»» 


the Mohammedans. This latter work, unluckily foi 
the author, soon after its publication, fell into the 
hands of the learned Persian Ahmed Ebn Zin, who 
immediately wrote an answer to it which he entitled, 
Tlie Brasher of the Looking-Glass. The college of 
the Propaganda at Rome were so exceedingly nettled 
by the masterly manner in which their missionary's 
work had been answered, that two Franciscan Friars 
were ordered each of them to prepare a reply to the 
rude Brusher of the Jesuit's Mirror. But as their 
arguments in defence of Christianity were mostly 
draw^n from the authorities of Popes and Councils, 
the palm of victory was fairly left in the hands of 
their Moslem opponent. 

Al Bochari ; an eminent Arabic writer, who has 
given the fullest account of the Traditionary Doc- 
trines of the Mohammedan religion. He is enume- 
rated, by Johannes Andreas and Bellonius, among 
the six Mohammedan Doctors who met by the ap- 
pointment of one of the Caliphs at Damascus in order 
to make an authentic collection of all the traditions 
which compose their Sonnah. His work contains 
the Pandects of all that relates either to their Law or 
their Religion, digested under their several titles 
through twenty books, and from its antiquity and 
authenticity ranks among their sacred writings next 
to the Koran. He was born at Bochara, A. D. 809, 
and died, A. D. 869. 

Al Fragani ; an astronomer of Fragana in Persia, 
whence his name ; which is at length Mohammed 
Ebn Katir Al Fragani. He wrote a book called 
The Elements of Astronomy, which has been several 
times republished in Europe, as at Nuremburgh, 
A. D. 1537; at Paris, 1546; at Frankfort, cum notis 
Christmanni, A. D. 1590, in Latin; and afterward 
by Golius in Arabic and Latin at Ley den, A. D. 
1669, with copious notes extremely useful to a 
knowledge of the Geography of the East. He flou- 
fished under the Caliph Al Mamon, who died A. D. 833. 


Al Gazal ; a famous philosopher of Tusa in 
Persia. He wrote many works not only in the de- 
partment of philosophy, but also in defence of the 
Mohammedan religion against Christians, Jews, 
Pagans, and every class of unbelievers. The most 
noted of his works is that entitled Tlie Destruction 
of Philosophers, written against Avicenna and other 
philosophers, who, in order to solve the absurdities 
of Islamism, were for turning into figure and alle- 
gory numerous points of that religion which had all 
along been understood literally. These writers he 
violently opposes, accusing them, on account of 
these mystical interpretations, of heresy and infi- 
delity, as corrupters of the faith and subverters of 
religion, for which reason he had the honorary appel- 
lation bestowed upon him of Hoghatol Islam Zainod- 
din, i. e. The Demonstration of Mohammedanism^ and 
the Honour of Religion. He was born A. D. 1 058, and 
died A. D. 11 12. His name at length is Abu Hamed 
Ebn Mohammed Al Gazali Al Tusi. 

Al Jannabi ; a historian born at Jannaba, a city 
of Persia, near Shiraz. His History extends down 
to the year of our Lord, 1588, and in the course of 
it he informs his reader that he took a pilgrimage to 
Mecca, and went from thence to Medina, to pay his 
devotions at the tomb of the Prophet, in that year of 
the Hejira which answers to A. D. 1556. 

Al Kamus ; i. e. The Ocean ; a noted Arabic Dic- 
tionary, so called from the ocean of words con- 
tained in it. It was written by Mohammed Al Shi- 
razi Al Firauzabadi. He was a person of great 
esteem among the princes of his time, for his emi- 
nent learning and worth, particularly with Ismael 
Ebn Abbas, king of Yemen, Bajazet, king of the 
Turks, and Tamerlane the Tartar, the last of whom 
made him a present of five thousand pieces of gold 
at one time. He was by birth a Persian, bom A. D. 
1338, but lived mostly at Sanau in Yemen of Arabia. 
He finished his Dictionary at Mecca, and dedicate' 


it to Ismael Ebn Abbas, whose patronage he had 
long enjoyed, and died at Zibit, m Arabia, A. D. 1414, 
having attained nearly to the age of ninety years. 

Al Kodai; an Arabic historian. He wrote his 
history about A. D. 1045, and died A. D. 1062. 

Al Masudi ; an historian. He is the author of a 
riistory called the Golden Meadows, but his era it is 
not possible now to discover. His name at length 
is Ali Ebn Housain Al Masudi. He wrote another 
work also, with the professed design of exposing 
the base fraud practised by the Roman Christians in 
Jerusalem, in lighting the candles at the Holy Sepul- 
chre on Easter Eve. A full account of this vile im- 
po.sition may be seen in Thevenot's Travels, Book 
li., chap. 43. 

Al Motarezzi ; the author of a book called Mo- 
grel; he was born A. D. 1143, and died A. D. 1213. 
Tie was of the sect of* the Motazali, and seems by 
his name, Al Motarezzi, to have been by occupation 
a tailor, as that is the signification of the word in 

Bedawi; one of the most distinguished of the 
eomrnentatOTs on the Koran. He died A. D. 1293. 

DiALOGUs Mahometis Cum Abdollah Ebn Salem ; 
a book written in Arabic, containing a great many 
of the absurdities of the Mohammedan religion, in 
tiio form of a dialogue between the Impostor him- 
self, and the Jew who was supposed to have beep 
his assistant in forging the Koran. It was trans- 
lated into Latin by Hermannus Dalmata, whose 
version will be found at the end of Bibliander's 
fiat in translation of the Koran. 

Disputatio Christiani contra Saracenwi de lege 
Mahometis. This work was written in Arabic by a 
Christian, who was an officer in the court of a king 
of the Saracens, to a Mohammedan friend of his, a 
fellow-officer with him in the same court ; and con- 
tains a confutation of Islamism. Peter, the fanvous 
Xhboi of Cluny, in Burgundy who flourished A. D. 


1130, caused it to be translated into Latin, by Peter 
of Toledo. An epitome of the work occurs in Bi- 
bliander's Koran. 

Elmacinus, usually written Elmacin ; an Arabic 
author, who has written a histoiy of the Christian 
religion, which extends from the creation of the 
world to A. D. 1118. The latter part of it, com- 
mencing from the rise of Mohammedanism, was 
published by Erpenius, under the title of Historia 
Saracenica, A. D. 1625. He was son to Yaser AI 
Amid, secretary of the council of war mider the 
Sultans of Egypt, of the family of Jobidae, and in 
the year 1238, Elmacin succeeded his father to the 
same office, by whom it had been occupied for forty- 
five years together. His whole name is Georgius 
Ebn Amid ; but for his eminent learning, was styled 
Al Shaich Al Rais Al Macin, i. e. The prime Doctor, 
solidly learned. By the last of these titles, or Elma- 
cin, he is generally called by Erpenius; but by 
others he is frequently cited by the name of Ebn 

Ebnol Athir ; a Mohammedan author, born A. D. 
1149, and died A. D. 1209. 

ALi Ebnol AxmR; an historian, brother to the 
former, who died A. D. 1232. His history, which he 
calls Camel, extends from the beginning of the 
world to the year of our Lord 1230. 

Ebnol Kassai ; author of the book called TaarifaU 
or an explication of the various Arabic terms used 
by philosophers, lawyers, divines, and other classes 
of the learned professions among them. 

EuTYCHius ; a Christian author, of the sect of the 
Melchites, whose name in Arabic is Said Ebn Ba- 
trik. He was bom at Cairo in Egypt, A. D. 876, 
where he became eminently distinguished in the 
medical profession. But towards the latter part of 
his life, addicting himself more to the study of di- 
vinity, he was A. D. 9^3, chosen patriarch of Alex- 
andria, when he first v-ok the name of Eutychius* 


He died seven years after, A. D. 940. His A.nnala 
of the Church of Alexandria, were published in 
Arabic and Latin at Oxford, by Dr. Pocock, A. D. 
1656, at the charge of the learned Selden. 

Liber de Generatione et Nutritura Mahometis ; 
a most silly and frivolous Tract, written originally 
in Arabic, from which it was translated into Latin by 
Hermannus Dalmata, and published with the Latin 
Koran of Bibliander. 

Geographia. NuBiENsis; one of the most noted 
Oriental works on the subject of geography. This 
title was given it by Sionita and Hesronita, Maron- 
ite Christians, who published it in Latin with a geo- 
graphical appendix, A . D. 1 6 19. But the Geographia 
Kuhitnsis is in fact only an abridgment of a much 
larger and much better work, written by Sherif El 
Ednsi, at the command of Roger, king of Sicily, for 
the purpose of explaining a large terrestrial globe 
which that prince had constructed entirely of silver. 
He completed his work A. D. 1153, and entitled it 
Ketab Roger, i. e. The Book of Roger, from the name 
of his patron. The author was by extraction of the 
race of Mahomet, and therefore called Sherif, the 
title appropriated to all the descendants of the pro- 
phet. There was a beautiful copy of this work 
among the Arabic MSS. of Pocock. 

Georgius Monachus ; Abbot of the monastery of 
St. Simeon. He wrote a tract in defence of the 
Christian religion against the Mohammedans, in the 
form of a disputation held by himself with several 
Mussulmans, of whom the principal speaker was 
Abu Salama Ebn Saar, of Mosul. 

Jauhari ; the author of a noted Arabic Dictionary 
called Al Sahah. He was of Turkish origin, and 
died A. D. 1007. This dictionary is considered in- 
ferior only to the Ramus. Golius, in his Arabic Lexi- 
con, haa drawn largely from its resources. 

Jalalani; i.e. The two Jalals, They were .two 
individuals of the same name, who wrote a slior* 


-ommentary on the Koran, which was beg-an by the 
Arst, and finished by the second. The latter com- 
pleted the work A. D. 1466, and was author also of a 
history called Mezhar. 

Sharestani. — A scholastic writer of considerable 
repute among the Mohammedans. He was born at 
Sharestan, A.D. 1074, and died A. D. 1154. 

Zamach-shari. — The author of a work called Al 
Keshaf ; which is an exteuvsive commentary on the 
Koran, the most highly esteemed among the Mo- 
hammedans of any work of this kind. He died 
A.D. 1143. 


Bartholomei Edessini Confutatio Hagarem. — A 
treatise in the Greek language written against the 
Mohammedan religion, published by Le Moyne 
among his Varia Sacra, The author was a monk 
of Edessa in Mesopotamia, but in what age he lived 
is unknown. 


This work contains four apologies for the Christian 
Religion, and four orations against the Mohamme- 
dan. The author had been emperor of Constanti- 
nople, but having resigned his empire to John Pale- 
ologus, his son-in-law, A.D. 1355, he retired into a 
monastery, accompanied by one Meletius, whom he 
nad converted from the Mohammedan to the Chris- 
tian faith. The work now mentioned was written 
for Meletius in answer to a letter addressed to him 
by Sampsates, a Persian of Ispahan, with a view to 
reclaim him, if possible, again to the religion of 

Cedreni Compendium Historiarum. — A work em- 
bracing a concise history of all ages from the cre- 
ation of the world to the year of our Lord lOd*^ 


CoNFUTATio Mahometis. — A Greek tract published 
by Le Moyne in his Varia Sacra ; author unknown. 

Theophanis Chronographia. — The work of one 
of the Byzanthie historians, containing a chronolo- 
gical history of the Roman Empire, from the year 
of our Lord 285 to A.D. 813. The author was a 
nobleman of Constantinople, where he held an of- 
fice of distinction in tlie imperial court, but after- 
ward retiring from public life and secluding himself 
in a monastery, he wrote this history. He died 
A.D. 815 in prison, in the island of Samothrace, a 
martyr to his zeal for image- worship, for which he 
was a most strenuous advocate in the second coun- 
cil of Nice. 

ZoNAR^ Compendium Historiarum. — ^.Ainother of 
the series of the Byzantine historians. It contains 
a history reaching from the creation to the death 
of Alexius Comnenus, emperor of Constantinople, 
which happened A.D. 1118, when the author flou- 
rished. He was at first a person of distinguished 
rank in the court of Constantinople, but afterwaro 
becoming an ecclesiastic, he wrote the history no^ 
mentioned, and was author also of a celebrated 
Comment on the Greek Canons. 


Clenardi EpisTOLiE. — The author of these epi 
ties was the famous grammarian of his age. Urged 
by his high opinion of the literary treasures locked 
up in the Arabic language, he went to Fez, A. D. 
1540, on purpose to make himself master of this in 
valuable tongue, and that at an advanced period of 
life. From this place he wrote the epistles above- 
mentioned, containing a minute account of the man- 
ners and religion of the Mohammedans. He died 
at Granada in Spain, immediatelv after his return. 


CusANi Cribatio Alcorani. — The author of this 
book was the celebrated Nicolas de Cusa, the most 
eminent scholar of the age in which he lived. He 
was made Cardinal of Rome, A. D. 1448, with the 
title of St, Peter'' s ad vincnla, and died A. D. 1464, 
about ten years after the capture of Constantinople 
by the Turks. This event gave occasion to the 
work, in which he aimed to provide an antidote to 
that baneful religion which he saw was now likely 
to overspread a great part of Christendom. 

Abrahami Ecchelensis Historia Arabum. — This 
work is subjoined by the author to his Chronicon 
Orientale, collected out of the Arabic writers. Ec- 
chelensis was a Maronite of Mount Libanus in Syria, 
and was employed as Professor of the Oriental 
Languages in the College De Propaganda Fide, at 
Rome, from whence, about the year 1640, he was 
called to Paris, to assist in the publication of the 
great Polyglot Bible, and was there made the king's 
Professor of Oriental Languages in the college of 
that city. His part, however, in the execution of 
that great work was said by some of the doctors of 
the Sorbonne to have done him little credit. His 
inaccuracies were almost infinite, and such as to 
evince that his judgment came far short of his eru- 

J. H. HoTTiNGERi Historia Orientalis. — Of this 
valuable work there are two editions ; the first of 
A. D. 1651 ; the second, much enlarged, of A. I) 
1660. The author was Professor of Oriental Lan- 
guages, first at Zurich in Switzerland, and afterward 
at Heidelburgh in Holland. From this place he was 
called to a similar Professorship at Leyden, but was 
unfortunately drowned in the Rhine during his re- 
moval thither. Hottinger was a man of amazing 
mdustry and of vast learning; but from having 
written so much in so short a compass of time, for 
he died young, his works want that accuracy which 


the maturity of a few more years in the author would 
have given them. As it is, they are all useful. 

Johannes Andreas de Confusione Sect^e Maho- 
metana:. — The author of this work was formerly an 
Alfaki^ or doctor of the Mohammedan Law ; but in 
the year 1487, being at Valencia in Spain, he was 
converted to Christianity, and soon after received 
into ?ioly orders ; whereupon he wrote this treatise 
in Spanish against the religion which he had aban- 
doned. From the Spanish, it was translated into 
Italian A. D. 1540; and again into Latin in 1595, and 
reprinted by Voetius at Utrecht in 1656. His 
tliorough knowledge of the subject enables him to 
manage the controversy with a force and pertinency 
which has since been rarely equalled. 

PococK. — The celebrated Professor of the Hebrew 
and Arabic tongues at Oxford ; for piety and learn- 
ing one of the brightest ornaments of his age. He 
was born A.D. 1604, and died A. D. 1691. For up- 
wards of sixty years he was a constant editor of 
useful and learned works, connected for the most 
part with the history or literature of the East. His 
most valuable, though by no means his most exten- 
sive, work is the Specimen Historian Jlrabicce, pub- 
lished A.D. 1650, which Mr. Gibbon thus signifi- 
cantly characterizes in one of his notes : — " Consult; 
peruse, and study the Specimen Historiae Arabica3 
Tiie three hundred and nhy-eight notes form a 
classic and original work on the Arabian antiqui- 
ties."* Again, " the English scholar (Pocock) un- 
derstood more Arabic than the Mufti of Aleppo."! 


author of this very valuable tract was a Dominican 
friar, who in the year 1210 went to Bagdad with 
the sole purpose of studying the Mohammedan reli- 
gion out of their own writings, in order the more 
successfully to confute it. This learned and judi* 

* Decline and Fall. vol. v. p. 1S5 t lb vol. v. p. 226. 


.Mous treatise was the fruit of his foreign residence, 
which he published upon his return. It was trans- 
lated from the Latin into Greek by Demetrius Cydo- 
iiius for the ex-emperor Cantacuzene, who makes 
^eat use of it, deriving from it whatever is of most 
real value in his four Orations against the Moham- 
medan rehgion. From this Greek version of Cydo- 
nius it was re-translated into Latin by Picenus, and 
published in the Latin Koran of Bibliander. This is 
all we now have of it, the original being lost. This 
tract of Richard, and that of Johannes Andreas be- 
fore mentioned, were the ablest which had been 
written by Europeans in the Mohammedan con- 
troversy previous to those of the Rev. Henry Martyn, 
which were originally published in Persian, and 
have since been translated into English by Prof. Lee 
of Cambridge. 

RoDERici ToLETANi HiSTORiA Arabum. — Containing 
a history of the Saracens from the birth of Moham- 
med to the year of our Lord 1150. The author was 
Roderic, Archbishop of Toledo, in Spain, who was 
present at the Lateran Council in 1215. His his- 
ory, from the tenth chapter, is mostly confined to 
\he Saracens of Spain, where his accounts may be 
generally relied on ; but little credit, it is said, is due 
o him wherever he follows them out of the bounds 
5f the Peninsula. The work was published with 
Erpenius' Historta Saracenica at Leyden,A.D. 1625. 






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